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Heat sink is well known as an electronic circuit device or component that performs the function of dispersing heat from various circuit components mostly if they are power transistors, towards the surrounding mediums then it cools the already transmitted heat so that they can improve their reliability, performance, and can be able to avoid any form of premature components failure.
The heat sinks can consist of some cooling devices like fans to have the heat transmitted cooled off in a wise yet better manner. Most assemblies and other electronic devices are majorly using heat sinks which provide them with the required supplementing cooling so that components do not have to overheat or rather people in assembly situations. The heat sinks are optimized and designed well to make sure that they operate at the range of temperature the manufacturers have provided. Below are various heat sink types.
Types of various heat sinks
i) Active Heat Sinks
The active heat sinks consist of fans, and their work is to utilize power to enable cooling to be easily done. They can also just be named as fans or heat sinks. They are however categorized into sleeve bearing type and ball bearing type. Most people prefer using ball bearing motor types since they have a long lifespan of working and considering that long time of being in use, they are cheaper as well. Such heat sink type has got an excellent performance. However, they are not applied for the long term since they include some moving parts which are somehow expensive too.
ii) Passive Heat Sinks
Passive heat sinks consist of aluminum radiators that are finned, and they don't have any mechanical elements in them. They always dissipate thermal heat or energy with the convention process only. They are very reliable when you compare them with active heat sink types, and they are always maintaining a continuous flow of air in their fins which makes their operation very efficient.
However, heat sink types are not only categorized from their active and passive types alone, but they can also be categorized with the materials they are made of. Such materials include
i) Aluminum Heat Sink
They are the heat sinks which are made with metal mostly aluminum. However, the thermal conductivity of various metals is in line with the sink heat transfer. Therefore, an increase in the metal thermal conductivity will lead to an increase in heat sink transferring capacity. Aluminum is always regarded to be the lightest and cheapest metal and is sometimes termed as extruded heat sinks since they are made of extrusion.
ii) Copper Heat Sinks
Copper has good thermal conductivity, and they are somehow heavy and costly. Places that regards thermal conductivity more than the weight then they should use copper heat sinks.
The heat sink types are generally categorized into the types named earlier where each type has got an example and other types within it. However, heat sink types are of various processes as for this article; we will be looking at various types of heat sink basically by the way they are manufactured which is mentioned below.
Various heat sink types in terms of the manufacturing process
1. Stamped Heat Sinks
Such heat sink types are the ones made with metals which are stamped to form the shape that is desired finally. The stamped stamp will form the heat sink when the metal is being moved in that stamping machine. They are cheap and consume low power when being used and are mostly applied in rural areas.
2. Machining Heat Sinks
They are heat sinks manufactured by the process of machining where they remove all material blocks using gang saw which makes the precise space be finned. When manufacturing, the process requires more materials which may end up being wasted; hence it is somehow expensive.
3. Bonded-Fin Heat Sinks
They are specifically applied in large work power which needs a very sensible performance like the DC-DC brick applications and electrical welding. Several individual metal fins are bonded at the heat sink base to come up with these types of the heat sink. It is done using either method between the brazing that is a little costly and thermal epoxy that is economical.
4. Folded-Fin Heat Sinks
For heat sinks that are made of these processes, their surface area is large, and they also have material of folded heat sink which makes the performance to be incredibly high with their heat-flux density being high as well. Such heat sinks permit air to flow towards the heat sinks passing through various ducts directly. It is an expensive process since ducting and manufacturing costs are included in the cost this kind of heat sinks.
5. Skived Heat Sinks
Heat sinks are also manufactured from the skiving process where excellently fine blocks are made of copper metals mostly. Their performance is moderate as well, and their price is affordable.
6. Forged Heat Sinks
When some most commonly used metals which include aluminum and copper, are compressed with forces to form heat sinks, the process is called forged heat sinks. They are however managed to be the forged heat sinks.
7. Single Assembly Fin Heat Sinks
The heat sinks made of this process are lightweight and are installed even in very tight places. Their capability to perform is from low to high, and they are applied in many areas. They are however somehow expensive due to their versatility.
8. Swaged Heat Sinks
The swaging process is mostly done in cold working environments. However, they are at some points done as the hot working process whereby an object’s dimension is altered to a die. They have medium performance, have limited air-flow management, and they are somehow expensive but still affordable.
How to select the correct heat sink type to cover your project
Heat sinks have the main function which is to help in dissipating and absorbing heat that is generated from various electronic devices. You should be cautious when selecting the perfect type that will cover your project by considering your volume requirement and the design. Also, put in mind active heat sinks are well used when enhancing heating dissipation, and passive heat sinks are also perfect if no moving parts are available.
According to material, copper has a high thermal conductivity level while aluminum is cost saving and weightless. Various manufacturing processes are available too so you must be open-minded when selecting the best heat sink type.