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Three Ways of Cooling LED Lamps and Design Analysis of their Heat Dissipation Structures


Many people know that there are three main ways to dissipate LED lamps: conduction, convection, and radiation. For bulbs and spotlights, the conduction mode plays the most important role. In order to achieve good thermal conductivity, the three heat conduction links should be reasonably used with thermal conductive materials, and try to improve convection heat dissipation and heat radiation.

The heat source is critical for heat transfer. The heat source comes from two parts: the light source and the power source. The heat of the light source part usually pays attention to the effective contact area between the light source PCB and the bonding surface of the heat sink. The larger the effective contact area, the better the heat dissipation. In addition, it should be noted that the heat transfer interface between different media is as smooth as possible; the heat transfer between the heat transfer materials should be tight enough, and the contact surface clearance of the components of the fittings should be as small as possible.

In the heat conduction design of the lamp, a good heat conduction channel should reduce the thermal resistance between the PCB, the heat transfer medium, the heat sink, and increase the effective contact surface between the three, and select a heat transfer medium with a high thermal conductivity.


Natural convection also requires an effective heat exchange area. Therefore, under normal circumstances, proper roughening of the outer wall of the heat dissipation can increase the effective heat exchange area. In addition, the thickness of the spray and the thermal conductivity and radiation of the paint should be considered when spraying different paints. Performance is good or bad. In order to increase the heat exchange area of the heat sink, Mingfa Tech adopts a fin structure. The usual effective heat exchange area is 50%-60% of the overall area of the luminaire. The "fin" heat sink can determine the effective heat transfer performance according to the fin efficiency and fin spacing.

In natural convection, the power supply will also heat up, because the power of the bulb and the spotlight is generally placed inside the lamp cavity, and the heat can be dissipated by using a medium such as a heat-conductive potting compound or a thermal conductive mud. For the superimposed thermal field, it is recommended to increase the air layer between the power source and the LED light source and the bonding platform of the PCB to form an air partition and weaken the thermal field superposition effect.


In addition, thermal radiation is an energy transfer that all objects are performing at any time, and different materials have different radiation intensities. Generally, the radiation intensity of a cool object is lower than the radiation intensity of a warm object, and the radiation intensity of a rough object is greater than the radiation intensity of a smooth object. Generally, the radiation heat transfer of bulbs and spotlights is small and can be ignored.

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