Space Shuttle program ( Official Space Transport System (STS) It is the most iconic project in the history of space exploration, aviation and aerospace warfare. from 1981 to 2011, the life cycle was very long, five units were built, and a total of 135 missions were completed, the space shuttle has made awesome technical achievements in many ways, conducting many experiments and providing cooperation in many important projects, such as launching the Hubble Space Telescope and supporting the construction of the International Space Station. This instructable shows how to use scrap and reusable materials to make copper pins based on a simple model of our favorite supersonic space aircraft. Let\'s get started :)Materials ( For more information, see the steps below \"collect materials \") 3 to 5 inch old 1od copper tube. 3 to 5 inch copper pieces 0. Water heater radiator 3mm thick. 2 inch flexible copper tube for old water heater 3mm. 25- 30 M8 zinc washers ( If the place where you live is not a coin that is illegally melted, you can use zinc coins such as dollar pence) A polystyrene foam food tray. A piece of waste wood of 3/4 square meters. A safety pin ( Better reuse: D) Tools power tools with multiple accessories sdremel tools ( The main ones are: cutting disc, wire brush drill bit, sandpaper disc, sandpaper drum, engraving drill bit, polishing drill bit) Drill bit, little bit and some oil used to lubricate the drill bit. Small hammer manual tool sballpeen ( I do hammers with big hammers) Metal scissors steel saw clamp needle wire clamp multi-tool with needle wire clamp, round mouth clamp and flat fine sand metal file sandpaper, fine grinding and rough grinding a section of printer Rod, lead- Adjustable wrenchA spoon or metal cross-shaped small spoon measuring tool cursor clamp ruler adhesive tape masking tape electric flannel office supplier- Acto cutter permanent marker 2 binder a used stainless steel ruler magnifying glass sewing pinspaint nail polish painting spray clear paint face safety glasses of any color ( Use forever and avoid accidents! ) Dust/surgical masks ( Dust for cutting, sanding and painting) First Aid Kit leather gloves (Just in case :)) Space shuttle template (see step below) Sand or similar powder material such as plaster or concrete, empty towel or old rag mobile phone charger with crocodile clip or any type of DC power supply, pickle tank, water, salt, pepper and you I\'m just kidding, actually: D) In this instruction, all the material is basically obtained from the old water heater, the old 1\' copper part, some zinc washers and a copper radiator of scrap wood. First, the old garbage from the water heater was removed with the help of an adjustable wrench and screwdriver. From this point, we got a lot of cool things in this and other future projects, brass nozzles, aluminum parts, and finally copper parts such as radiators, in order to prevent environmental corrosion, this material is mainly made of copper, tin coating. The copper sheet was obtained from the radiator (about 0. 3mm thick)sections ( Use dremel tools with cutting discs and metal scissors) And 3/8 \'copper pipe section ( Using the cutter) From the pilot flame mechanism, a long and small flexible copper wire is obtained (about 3mm OD) , These materials are used in further steps below. There is also the 1\'od copper pipe, which used to be part of my pipe, in this project, using the 5\'long section, cutting with a pair of metal Sears, squish into a flat plate with hammers and ballpeen hammers. As part of the pin body construction process, it uses a zinc mold made of a molten zinc gasket, and if you are not sure if the washing machine is pure zinc, it is melted about 30 M8 washers, these washers are still an attempt to make a 3d printer, you can try to melt it with a propane torch and the zinc melting temperature is quite low (419. 53 °C, 787. 15 °F) , Or you can use something else from zinc, like some type of coin ( Not shown in the picture, actually I use coins instead of washing machines, but I don\'t want to break any rules or laws about melting coins, so it depends on you if you want to use coins). In order to make the fuselage mold, it also uses a polystyrene foam food tray, such as a tray selling poultry and meat in the supermarket and a piece of waste wood. Easy :) First, the images, schematic diagrams and illustrations of the orbiter, including NASA and Buran space shuttle, were studied to identify the basic shape and features of the aircraft structure. Then a rough sketch was made on the CAD program, and finally a 1:1 scale template was made, ready to be printed and used as a reference throughout the building process. The design of the pin basically includes a base, which is the delta wing of the shuttle, made of a copper sheet of the 1\'tube, a prefabricated long fuselage made from a thinner copper sheet, vertical anti-roll fins of the same piece as the wing, as well as engine compartment made of copper pieces with small copper wire parts, all parts are welded and fixed on the safety pin at the bottom. The . The PDF file of the template is attached to this step: the three components are made of a 1\' copper tube, as shown in the last step, these tree parts are triangular wings, vertical fins, and plates located at the end of the shuttle that hold the engine nozzle. First, trim each part from the paper printed by the template and stick it to the copper sheet with glue. Then spray the copper plate with paint, after the paint is cured, remove the paper part from the board with tweezers, and find that if the paint cannot reach the copper surface that maintains the shape of each paper part, the part will be found. Each marked part is carefully trimmed with a metal scissors and then straightened up with a ballpeen hammer and iron hammer. Finally, each part is polished and brushed with a dremel tool to remove all tool marks made during the process. Making the body mold to give the final shape of the copper sheet is a long and complicated task, it is made of 3d form of the body made of metal, in this case is zinc, and the negative effects of the same 3d form carved on a piece of scrap wood head. For casting mold parts, a casting method called \"Lost\" is used Foam Casting \'consists of molten metal in shape, using a 3d model of foam buried in fine sand, the process itself is very interesting and relatively easy to make if done right. The first thing to do is to make the final 3d form of the mold with polystyrene foam, using a trimmed longitudinal crossover Part of the template is transferred to a polystyrene foam tray that holds the paper part with a sewing pin. Then transfer X-for foaming-acto knife. This part is repeated three times and three equal foam parts are obtained. All parts are then glued together with glue, and once the glue is dry, the rough 3d shape is polished to the original size using the template as a reference. Some small pieces of foam were added to the back part of the 3d shape to make the widest part of the 3d shape have a larger volume. In the Lost- The foam casting process needs to add an additional part of the foam called \"rier\", which is the beginning of the casting, which consists of a rectangular foam glued to a specific position in the 3d shape, enables the shape of the foam to be transmitted by the molten metal. You can calculate the dimensions of raisins based on variables such as the size of the desired 3d shape volume, the density of molten metal, and some fluid static considerations. In this case, considering that this is not a large amount of metal, we intend to do the same process many times if the attempt fails: D, the riser consists of two rectangular segment bubbles of about 1. 5 inches long. Once we have the 3d form ready, the 3d form is buried in the concrete in the old metal tank ( Sand is usually involved in the process, but not enough fine sand is found) , It is buried in the \"rupture\" of the riser from sand to the surface, and then a cone or funnel is formed around the foam riser with \"sand\", you can use water to change the consistency of the sand, make cone forming easier. Finally, melt the zinc washer/coin with a propane torch with a large spoon or metal crucible. Once the metal is fluid, pour the molten metal into the sand funnel at the top of the foam riser in order to melt all the foam ingredients and replace the foam form with zinc. Please use common sense about high temperature molten metal, wear at least thick leather gloves and safety glasses, please don\'t burn yourself! ! The poured metal is placed for a few minutes to completely cool, then removed from the sand with pliers to show the 3d form of the metal casting. Raiser was removed with the dremel tool and the form was polished. Although the final form is not perfect and sloppy, it\'s a good start as a metal forming mold and could be worse :). Similar to the steps to explain how to transfer the trimmed shape, fix it with glue, paint with a spray pot, and the wooden negative mold of the shape of the space shuttle fuselage is transferred in the same way, after the shape drawing is completed, outline the boundary using a craft knife. Then, using the dremel tool with engraving bits, use the template size as a reference to remove the material to make the negative part of the mold. The progress of engraving is constantly evaluated using the cursor calipers until the negative mold is able to accommodate the metal casting mold. There are two molds, the first is severely deformed when trying the die copper sheet for the first time, and the second is the copper sheet used to shape the final body shape. After the molding mold is completed, the fuselage is formed with a thin copper sheet. First, remove the tin coating on the copper sheet by sanding, then between the wood mold and the metal casting mold. Later, with a ballpeen hammer and a blunt cut, the metal mold was pushed and began to form a copper body. Please don\'t worry, as in this section you can chop up the copper sheet and seriously deform it as shown in the rear of the body shape :/. After the copper sheet is formed, the sides are trimmed, and a small label is left on both sides of the fuselage to fix the part in the delta wing part. Then drill out the delta wing part to receive the fuselage fixing piece, and at this time there are also holes to insert the safety pin, each hole is started with a drill bit, and then enlarged with a file or dremel cutting bit. Some of the details of the pin are made with an Electrolytic etching method on copper, basically a chemical circuit in the winch, with a power supply ( Mobile phone charger) With two electrodes, on the front, it connects the part to be etched (Copper part) , Connect a piece of stainless steel on the reverse side ( An old metal ruler) There is 10% salt water between the two electrodes. The circuit and the electrolytic fluid conduct an electrolytic chemical reaction, dissolve the copper of the plate, and transfer the copper particles to the negative pole, so if you isolate some areas on the copper side, etching is stronger in some undiscovered spots, and there is no etching in the isolation area. In order to isolate the area to be etched, nail polish and electrical tape were used, first masking tape stripes were used on the copper surface, outlining the design compared to the template, and then, when all the desired details of etching are marked with masking tape, a layer of nail polish is applied to all the remaining surfaces. After the nail polish is completely cured, all the masking tape knots are removed, tweezers and an X-acto knife. Then a piece of scrap copper is fixed in the etching section with tape to connect the crocodile clip of the positive electrode. The etching depth depends on the time the circuit is turned on, the etching time is about 2 hours for the wings and vertical fins, too thin for the fuselage, and the etching time is about 3. 5 hours, some spots of the part are completely dissolved, forming small holes on the surface, and these defects are later corrected when welding a small piece of copper under the damaged surface. Once all the parts are etched, they are cleaned and brushed clean with the dremel tool. The shuttle has five nozzles on the back, distributed in a pattern drilled on a previously trimmed copper back plate, and then welded five widgets (about 3mm OD) Copper pipe about 0. They are all 5 long. Each part of the copper tube is tapered with a nail, a round mouth clamp and a ballpeen hammer to show a different nozzle. The first thing to weld is the wing base of the safety pin, which uses a pair of binder to fix the position of the workpiece when welding. Later, the fuselage was assembled onto the wing base, bent the trimmed labels and welded them. At this point I realized that the welding safety pin was not the best idea because with the heating of the propane torch, the safety pin steel was annealing and became too fragile to be used, so the pin was removed The vertical fins and the rear nozzles are then welded in an awkward position, which is difficult because the vertical fins move and most of the time it has no square with the base wing. Just use a lot of flux and fix the parts at the welding place to stay calm and safe. ( Don\'t burn yourself :)) Finally, when all parts are welded, all welding residues are cleaned with a dremel wire brush. Remove all welding residues using a wire brush and polish all surfaces using a dremel tool. Then apply a layer of transparent paint on all the surfaces. Finally, a new safety pin was positioned using a needle clamp and a round nose clamp, bending the end of the pin. These holes were modified with circular files to accommodate the new dimensions of the safety pin. Now you can call it the \"needle\" of that metal. Although a bit sloppy, I am happy with the final result of the pin, an interesting project and a great reminder of the great invention of humanity. I am thinking of drawing the pin in black and white to be similar to the original color of the real model and I will update if there is any change. The production of the fuselage mold is very difficult, but from the beginning I was thinking about making multiple pins in the future, so the fuselage mold is the best idea I have come up with, and finally, I think it will still work in the future. Please leave a message if you have any questions or comments. Thank you for reading. see the Space Cowboy later! !