This is long, if warned. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Anyway, as I said before many comrades around the world, electronic products have become the most important thing in our daily life. Mobile phones, computers, TVs, keyboards, mice, speakers, everything uses electricity, and of course semiconductors. You can easily try to turn on your phone or xbox with hundreds of big, small, big black stuff lurking in it. In addition to other metals, there is silicon in these things. Ask around and get some weird look, with the exception of the most basic electronic components, few people know how transistors work, mosfet, or anything else, or even an extension. This guide/Bible for universal semiconductors will serve you well, hopefully. Yes, I want to win a 3-D printer. . . ( Maybe the laser indicator, but I won\'t be greedy or lying) I want to make packaging and parts for electronics, not just make 3- Like others might, there are rabbits and boxes all day long. I want to really put this thing into work and make some decent cases out of it! While my guidance is not as good as the throwers on HV, I hope we can all get the average person back into electronics and bring back the electrical curiosity that almost everyone had at the time, even if he didn\'t win. I hope we can find a way. Yes, I do know him and he agrees with me to do this guide. What I can really say is, thank you for taking the time to read the article if you wish. I put quite a bit of time into this Illustrated Guide. Please spread this guide as much as possible! And, I know very well that a lot of you Instructure users won\'t be too interested in that because it\'s not. . . \"cool\". I understand your point to some extent. But learning all this can make you do something cool! It lets you design your own cool stuff! Think about it; Wouldn\'t you feel great if you just found a new type of semiconductor, or a new way to use an existing one? What is the use of semiconductors? Everything. High pressure is just a flashy thing, but seriously, you can make a new one. . . anything. New transistor Believe me when I say that. Anything new and amazing in the electronic world will be here for a long time. long. time. That\'s why this guide is here. Before I begin to explain all this Silicon, I have to say a word to the package. Every semiconductor I know has several types of packages. These packages are things that put small chips inside, which allows us to use them on everything with fat fingers, and it makes it easier, welding aspects. Some packages have different pints. Typically, it is wise to look up the data sheet for a specific semiconductor, check the pins and see which leads are where. Smaller, not hot- Sink diodes are usually in DO-xx packages. They look like little pills. Larger diodes are in a conventional package used by almost all other devices, and they can be heated as the number of holes in the package increases. To save cost and ease of use, the MOSFET, transistor, IGBT, voltage regulator, and certain diodes can all use the same exact package, because most pins in a specific package are the same regardless of the semiconductor. From the radiator\'s point of view, the rule of thumb is that the larger the physical size of the package, the more heat dissipation. A small TO- The 220 package can usually dissipate about 50 watts while the larger-247\'s and TO- 3 packages can dissipate 150 watts or even more than 200 watts! Be generous when you heat things. It\'s much better to have an oversized radiator and a nice cool semiconductor than to have a small size radiator and a plastic spot that\'s now melted glued to it. The fan also adds power to everything. Use them if necessary. If you plan to use multiple semiconductors on one board, the radiator goop and the insulator are very important. When using the radiator material, be sure to use a small amount, usually about 3/4 of the size of a grain of rice, and then tighten the semiconductor. Use an insulator, such as an Sil liner (silicone pad) Or a piece of cloud mother piece, you need to apply roughly the same amount of material on both sides, as this helps to better transfer heat. When semiconductors should not be electrically connected, the insulation experience prevents them from electrically connected. Most packages, at least most MOSFET, IGBT, and voltage reg packages have metal backing; This increases the heat transfer, but they are usually connected to some leads of the semiconductor. Therefore, an insulator is used to protect the object from bad contact. The first package is-3PN package. There is always a metal backing, and if multiple backing is used on a single heating, an insulator is requiredsink. The second package is-220 package. This one has a metal backing, so an insulator is needed. The package after that is a- 92 package for small signal transistors. Therefore, they do not use radiators and do not require an insulator. The package after that is a SOT-32 package. It has a small metal backing that requires an insulator. Package 5 is- 220 package with 4 leads. These types of packages can actually have a lot of leads. The plastic backing does not require an insulator, but because of this it cannot dissipate heat like other types. The sixth package is a special variant of- 247 package, its lead is longer than the standard lead. They all have metal backing that can emit a lot of heat. These are also more popular packages because of-3PN ( There\'s that big metal flange in the back). Need an insulator Package 7 is-264 package. This is the largest size in brick-free packaging. These packages have a stronger power semiconductor compared to other packages and can consume the maximum amount of heat. From my experience, these have metal backing and are a bit thin/weak leads. Be careful when handling these. Need an insulator as usual. 8t- Package 9 is a two-line internal package, referred to as DIP. These are used for IC, etc. , easy to handle, easy to weld, easy to kill ,( They can\'t handle a lot of power and they can\'t disperse any power! ). There are two flavors of plastic and ceramic. Ceramic IC packages are usually old and can emit more heat (if any) than plastic variants ). In the micro-controller, they can have up to 6 pins and can be extended to 40 pins at all times. The tenth and final package is the SOIC package. This is a surface mounted package that is very painful to use due to their size. The picture shows a dollar bill that gives you a general idea of how small these fools are. You can use them, but you usually need 1. Make PCB specially for them, or, if you want to use them on the breadboard/wear board, then 2. Make a DIP package yourself. This can be done with fine tip soldering iron and a lot of patience. There are quite a few instructions on how to do it yourself in more detail. Surface mount packages are more, and they all have different ranges in terms of size, number of pins, and pin spacing. Generally speaking, the one with the largest size and the largest pin spacing is the easiest to use. ( But it\'s still hard. . There is also a type of package called a ball grid array. If you do not have the necessary tools to use these ICs, it is almost impossible for them to be used. In general, avoid them unless you know what you\'re doing with them. By the way, thank you for fixing the notes! DIE- Ohd diodes may be one of the more common components and one of the first to be invented. A diode is a doping p- Devices that prevent the flow of current in one direction allow to do a lot of interesting things. The diode can be used to correct the AC, which will be explained in the following steps. due to the above properties, the diode can be used to generate the radio, which can demodulated the carrier signal and output the pulse DC wave, this is the voice you can hear. Now, most radios take advantage of more complex silicon, significantly increasing the number of parts, but also increasing the loudness and ease of use, and of course better sound quality. Diodes are fairly cheap compared to other semiconductor devices because they are relatively easy to manufacture compared to other doping silicon and due to mass production and demand. There are a lot, I mean there are a lot of different diodes, but they all have ( Almost, there is an exception) Same as other diodes. The diodes exhibit some strange properties, mainly voltage drops. The voltage of most standard diodes is reduced to from. 4 volts to . 7 volts. The voltage drop of some diodes is lower, and the voltage drop of some diodes is only. 2 volts! This voltage drop is important because it allows you to determine how much heat the diode will generate based on how many amps you plan to install, if you need or do not need a radiator. However, most diodes are pre-rated for you. The signal diode is usually a small diode, sometimes in a glass case or in a plastic case. They can handle low current and low voltage, but the advantage of them is that the recovery time is very fast, but some recovery speed is slightly slower than fast recovery. The purpose behind this ,( Why not use diodes? ) Because of space constraints. There are a lot of parts on the computer board, so they really have to narrow the parts down to the small size. The signal diode is clearly used for clock signals in digital devices to prevent the reverse signal from damaging the micro-controller. A list of some signals dios1n49731n41481n34a (LEDs) 1n4454 rectifier diodes are the most common of all diode types, as they are often used in almost all types. Rectifier diodes are used to correct AC power or to change the state from one voltage to another. Because the diodes prevent the current from flowing in a certain direction, they can prevent the change of the negative state, thus allowing the creation of DC current, and of course additional components. 4 diodes have been arranged to do this, which is called full-wave rectification, and both sides of its medium wave have become DC pulses, wasting very little power from the AC current. Half-wave rectification is equivalent to taking a diode and placing it on the AC power supply; This wastes half the sine wave. This feature allows these diodes to be used in almost every wall power supply you can imagine. They all convert a 60 hz sine wave from your wall socket to a clean DC power supply for your computer, mobile phone or any of your electronics. ( And a smooth hat! ) However, unlike signal diodes, these diodes can have a wide recovery time for standard diodes, which can be effectively recovered at 1 kHz ac flow, for ultra-fast diodes that can be recovered very quickly, all the way to the Hertz area. Most of these diodes have roughly the same voltage drop. 6-. 7 volts. The high voltage variant can have a lot of voltage drops, from 25 V to 45 V, but when you work at a voltage of 5 kV to 50 kV, 45 V is not too important. The current range of these diodes can also range from 250 mA to hundreds of amps. However, normally, if the on-current of the diode exceeds 4 amps, the diode needs a radiator, otherwise it will overheat and release magical smoke. Some rectifier diossin4007 ( IN means standard recovery)UF4007 ( UFIDA said super fast recovery) Murillo rgp10aschottky diode is a very special type of diode, formed not by doping silicon, but by contacts generated by semiconductors and metals. This property is inherent in cat\'s tendrils diode and radio, where a small piece of metal, sometimes a rusty razor blade or a square lead mine (Semiconductor) Poked it with a needle until the radio began to transmit the sound. The purpose behind this is ( The word is coming again! ) Correct the radio signal so that it generates a pulsating DC current to the speaker and produces sound waves. This is very effective but it is very unreliable because 1. Even a slight vibration can cause the diode effect to disappear, or 2. The actual diode itself is hard to find because the needle contact needs to be in a specific position where it can correct the radio waves. The Schottky diode is the lowest voltage drop in all the diodes mentioned earlier; Sometimes low. 2 volts! These diodes also have no recovery limit due to their structure, which means they can correct almost any signal, so they are able to correct radio waves at 100 MHz, or even higher, up to 100 ghz or more! This diode sounds amazing. it\'s amazing, right? Why do we use other diodes? Especially this is awesome? There is a limit to select the diode, that is, the voltage. Schottky can only handle voltages above 200 volts, limiting their use for signal purposes and for small voltage correction. However, in terms of current, they can handle as much current as any other diode, but as before, if you plan on 4-5 amps. Special Note; There is also a diode called a tunnel diode. This type of diode is similar to the Schottky diode in several ways, mainly with low voltage and low current. The tunnel diode is a special type of negative resistance diode. This means that the current decreases as the voltage increases! However, this effect only occurs within a certain voltage range, making the tunnel diode useful only for low-power applications. Not to mention, they can\'t handle too much current either. However, they can oscillate at almost any frequency, from 1 khz to 1000 GHZ. They are very neat and tidy, which is the basic principle behind the magnet, and the diodes used inside the microwave oscillate at 2 points. 43 or so GHZ. Some common diodes are a special type of diode. Although this part is negligible in most cases, they still correct the current, voltage drop, and reverse recovery time. However, unlike other diodes, they do allow voltage to flow in both directions in specific cases. This is called the \"Zener effect\", like an avalanche, which will be explained with a TVS diode. The Zener effect is an interesting feature of zeners. In fact, once a certain voltage is reached, Zina starts to turn on in two ways, but it is difficult to reduce the voltage to a specific Zina voltage. Think of it as a controlled pressure drop device that always reduces a specific amount of voltage, regardless of the current or voltage at both ends of it. For example, a 5. The 6 Volt Zener diode flows to the sun from the cathode and is extremely 2 volts. It will not proceed. If the voltage goes up to 6 volts, then the Zener diode will start to turn on and drop by 5 volts. Even if the voltage is 100 V, the voltage will drop by 5 V. 6 volts. In any case, this effect is very useful in many things, such as protecting the MOSFET gate, or protecting the sensitive circuit from over-voltage. They are also used for voltage regulators as voltage reference for circuit selection. The rated voltage of the Zina diode is not amps, but wattage, because the input voltage can be anything. Common Zener diodes range from. While some Zener diodes do have power up to 10 watts, or even more, 25 watts to 1 watt. General-purpose voltage regulator dios1n4744 (15 volt)1N4742 (12 volt)1N4734 (5. 6 volt) The TVS diode works in a very similar way to the Zener diode. They also fix the voltage at a specific point, but the TV is used to protect very large devices, sometimes even as lightning protectors. Their voltage dropped a lot. They can handle more power than the Zener diodes, so the size is usually large. Similar to the Zina diode, the TVS diodes are rated at wattage, typically more than 1 KW of the input power, as they can withstand very high amps at very fast pulse rates. That\'s why TVS diodes are so large because they don\'t actually need a radiator because it only changes the time it takes for the diode to cool. However, this means that TVS diodes are only suitable for nS (nanosecond! ) High voltage/high current pulse. Mr. TV has also begun to prosper. Littelfuse happened to have made lightning protection diodes and I asked for some samples very well and they gave me some. The diode you see in the picture is a 1500 watt TV diode. ( Little surprise! ) It can be said that there are no ordinary TV diodes, but they have a common brand, such as Transil (Semiconductor)or Transorb (Vishay) Almost everyone knows what LED is. It represents a LEDs with the exact same function as a rectifier diode. They use extremely low power, with few exceptions, they are small in size and produce very little heat. There are various types of LED, not just colors. Infrared LED and uv led are a few of them, and even so, there are more flavors for these types of LED. For the LED, the wavelength, angle of view and various different properties exist. However, there is a problem with the LED. LED can not withstand high voltage; only around 1. 2 volts, ( Low power is common anyway! ) And the current needs to be limited, otherwise they will be self-destructed. It is very easy to limit the current of the LED with a simple resistor ( I think you know what this is. Limit the current to an acceptable level. Each LED has a different amp rating, most of which are within the mA range for small LEDs. Some LEDs do output quite a bit of heat due to brightness, so need good heatsink. Laser diodes are a good example. High Power Laser diodes (diode? Hello. . . ) There must be a considerable amount of heat. The sinks, so there are also large enclosures and cooling systems to prevent them from bursting. Laser diode is basically a special form of LED; Instead of shooting the light anywhere, they concentrate it into a single beam path, thus forming the laser itself. This prevents the energy from spreading, so the laser can be seen far away. There are also several different types of laser diodes, infrared diodes, color diodes ,( The same is true for all colors, but the cost of each color is different due to strength and manufacturing process. Red is probably the cheapest color). The smaller lead on the LED is the cathode or negative lead. As mentioned earlier, the LED can correct the current like any other diode. You can use it with AC current, it will produce a half wave rectified DC pulse, or, if you find it strange, you can make the LED bridge rectifier using the full bridge ( Who is willing to do so now? ) LED also has a voltage drop. The same number of diodes. LED is used for almost everything ,( Almost everything. Including speakers ( Do you know the small light setting that shows the volume? ) Computers, mice ( Unless you\'re still using ballsy mice), cell phones ( Backlight and keyboard) And normal standard lighting. Laser diodes are also used in many ways. Laser mice, (that\'s a duh) , Your CD drive, Blu-ray Light drivers, optical fibers use a laser system to project their information over a long distance. . . In the military, the CO2 laser system is used for laser engraving ( But it\'s not a diode, something different). Clubs use them at Carnival parties. ; Variable capacitor diodes are a replacement for mechanical butterfly capacitors in the radio. They use a special type of diode to enhance the capacitance ( This is actually available in all diodes, but most manufacturers tend to avoid this to prevent ringing and oscillation). The capacitor is a variable through the voltage it inputs. Different voltages tend to change the capacitance of the diode, allowing for fine control and removal of mechanically variable capacitors. They are cheaper to make and are found to have obvious reasons in devices such as radios. TRAN-SIST- URRBipolar junction transistor AH, transistor. This device is the most common semiconductor in the industry, and for many reasons it quickly replaces vacuum tubes in many ways. In the early days, if there was a transistor in the radio, it was most likely the most expensive part of the radio. Today, everything from cheap to expensive has transistors. They have three pins on them, the collector, the transmitter, and the base. There are also two types of transistors; PNP and PNP transistors. As explained in Steps 8 and 9, each has different attributes, so the use is different. There are some problems with the transistor, mainly the temperature coefficient and the pressure drop. The negative temperature coefficient basically means that when the transistor heats up, it starts to conduct more current. This increase in current can cause the transistor to heat further until the transistor is saturated, or if the transistor has insufficient heat, Sinking will explode. Voltage drop is how much the transistor basically loses voltage when it is turned on or off. You can calculate how much heat the transistor will generate by measuring the voltage drop of the transistor and multiplying it by the current you are trying to zoom in or switch. P = Ed * I where P is equal to Watt power, E is equal to voltage drop, and I is equal to the total current required for switching/amplification. The transistor also has a property called saturation, which basically exists in all of Conduction device. Saturation is basically when the transistor cannot be \"further\" than it is now, which means that when the transistor passes through the load, there will be a maximum voltage drop in the load. This greatly reduces the heating of all semiconductors, and it is usually a good idea to keep the transistors saturated if you switch with transistors. There are as many transistors as diodes because they are also a very common component. They are used in computers, radios ,(as amplifiers), TV\'s, ( There are amplifiers and switches there! ) Of almost all the electronics you can think of, there is at least one transistor. We start at the bottom of the transistor. BOOM. Apply the signal to the base and turn the transistor on or off. When the current stimulates the transistor arm, the transistor suddenly starts screaming. It starts to release the current in the collector. Then, the current flows from the collector to the transmitter and flows in a certain amount according to the so-called gain. 1 transistor can have a gain of 100. This will lead to, well, let\'s put it in a scene. You have 10 mA of the current pushing at the bottom of the transistor. The transistor \"releases\" 1 amp current at the collector and lets 1 amp flow. The number of times this current, voltage drop will give you a rough estimate of how much heat your pnp transistor will generate and if you need to heat it. A transistor used to control forward current. The common pnp transistor 2N3055 2N3904 TIP31 2n222222 pnp transistor works very similar to the pnp transistor, but not the positive voltage. But they are the opposite in terms of operations. When there is no base current, they are on and they turn off when the current is applied. How much on or off is determined by the gain of the transistor. They are used to control (typically) Negative voltage. In addition to this change, PNP transistors are basically exactly the same as they are used for amplifiers, radios, computers, and all electronic devices. General purpose PNP transistor 2N3906 2N6054 2nsfp 3darlington transistor. . . . The word always sounds English, right? Obviously, people at transistor companies and companies believe that the 100 beta gain is not enough. They want more. So, they did what other people would do and stuck the two transistors together. BBBBBBWhat? Yes, two transistors, stick together in a way called the Darlington pair. They work exactly the same way as normal single transistors, but they zoom in many times more. A typical Darlington transistor, such as TIP127 or TIP122, is about 1000 beta that the transistor has obtained ( The unit of gain is beta). Wut. Well, that means 100 uA (nano amp) The signal will be output. . . 100 mA, if I\'m right. This means you can do something very neat with Darlington. You can make a finger or touch button with it because there is a very small current in your skin that is enough for Darlington to do it. Pretty, right? Darlington is used where the signal is very weak, works well on the touch screen, or is used to amplify the signal of the radio. They can also be used to drive higher power transistors, such as transistors with very small current gain. Properly arrange them to multiply each gain by another. For example, place a 100 gain and 8 gain transistor in the Darlington configuration. The gain of 8 is the transistor at the bottom, and the gain of 100 is above. The previous one will increase the current gain of 8 Gain 1 to a gain of about 800. Total avalanche. This is the same avalanche as the TV diode I said. Mosfet can generate avalanche voltage through them as excess heat. This makes these types of mosfet ideal for flying Because voltage spikes can kill mosfet without avalanche rating, reverse transformers are used. Not all of them are avalanche-level; Data sheets tell you if they exist. Next, there are roughly two types of mosfet, P-channel and N-channel, where N-channel mosfet is the most common one. The Mosfet is also a positive temperature coefficient, which means that the hotter they are, the less current they conduct. It makes the parallelism of these devices very easy and provides additional driver technology. Mosfet is used in many digital devices due to its simple properties, such as on off devices. ( Think about binary, what is this? ) Because they are used for switches, they can be used as relays, light evaders, sound generators ( Like a synthesizer. , Switch mode power supply, CPU logic, gate logic, oscillator, such as backlight of laptop, if the laptop is still using CFL. Meeets is also used in circuits for many amateurs. The N- The channel mosfet is the most common and has been studied in depth. Compared to P- Channel fet, they are cheaper, easier to use and better in all aspects. ( Power, current capability, voltage capability, etc) They use a forward voltage signal on their door to trigger the switch. The N-channel mosfet has a wide range of power and a wide range of packages. They have a surface mount and a penetrating version. Their power handling capabilities range from below 1 amp to the brick version of 100 amp, although these are hard to drive due to their input capacitance and on/off time. Signal N- Channel mosfet, at T0- The 92 package and power mosfet, such as the irfp50 mosfet, is a common cheap fet used by amateurs. N-basic principles behind The channel fet is a forward signal applied to the gate and it opens. N- MOSFETs, like transistors, are commonly used in everything because they replace the horrors of transistors. They are common in computers and amplifiers. Do you know those expensive ones? ) There are also a variety of amateurs. Common N- Channel fet IRFP250 IRFP460 IRFP450 ( All of this was made by International Rectifier, a company that actually invented the mosfet. They even have www. mosfet. com! )P- Working mode of channel mosfet and N- However, they are not controlled/controlled by the forward voltage, but by the negative voltage signal of the gate. They turn off when the gate voltage is V, and they turn on when the voltage is negative or zero. P- Channel fet is usually physically small, usually in-220 case. They can\'t handle as much power or voltage as most N-Channel mosfet. Their on-resistance is usually N- The same is true for channel fet. They are used for switching mode power supplies to keep the ground on the ground. If you use the Nchannel fet, it will be grounded at a certain voltage. Common P- Channel fets: IRF9Z24N IRF9392EYE gee bee insulated gate bipolar transistor now, you might think, \"Oh, Jared, it\'s just a transistor with a fancy name. \" WRONG. The insulated gate bipolar transistor is equivalent to putting the mosfet together with the ordinary bipolar transistor. They have children! Boy, will these babies punch in? Like a MOSFET, the IGBT is a voltage controller piece. They combine high current energy and low saturation voltage (complete on) Simple Gate Drive for transistors and MOSFETs. Like other devices, they have three pins. The pins are marked as Gates, collectors, and transmitters. The collector is equivalent to the drain of the mosfet, and the emitter is the source of the mosfet. Basically, they are very fashionable. But we don\'t live in a perfect world. IGBT also has its own problems. Like transistors, they have negative temperature coefficients. Meaning, the hotter it gets, the more current it conducts, causing heat to get out of control and the death of the IGBT ( This happens in an instant in most cases). Compared to the MOSFET, the turn-off and turn-on time of the IGBT is slightly slower. They can usually handle anything from 0 hz to 40-or so In most cases, 50 khz, although there is indeed a faster IGBT. It really depends on the actual device itself. IGBT is known for its current handling capabilities. Most people can handle the current of more than 50 amps at a voltage of more than 600 volts, or even more! They are ideal for low-frequency, high-current, high-voltage purposes where mosfet is suitable for high-frequency, low-current, and low-voltage purposes. However, like the mosfet, they also have input capacitance and ringing problems. Using resistors and clean sources, take the same measures as the mosfet to prevent this. Shorter leads are also helpful. Like a mosfet, the IGBT does not have complex body diodes. However, for ease of use, manufacturers usually do you a favor and add high-speed high-voltage diodes to the IGBT package. When using high frequency IGBT, be sure to check how fast the diode is. However, there are exceptions, and some IGBT do not have a diode at all and may require you to add a diode outside the package. You need the anode of the diode ( Choose ultra-fast high amp 1000-1200 Volt diode) To the emitter of IGBT. This will allow the dry wheel voltage, if required, to prevent the IGBT from exploding. Welding machine, induction heater (I love these) Microwave ovens, as well as in many applications that also use mosfet. I haven\'t seen the IGBT amplifier yet, though. There is only one type of IGBT. No N or P channels! The IRG7PH42U 25N120 30N120A JFET for normal IGBT is like a garden hose. Well, it is! The JFET can be considered a negative mosfet. The more voltage applied to the gate, the more resistance from the drain to the source. ( They have the same label as mosfet! ) Once a certain voltage is reached, the drain of the source pole can be completely closed as an open switch. They are the simplest type of transistor that can be used as a switch or as a voltage control resistor. There are two types of JFETS, the P channel and the N channel, and it\'s also the same as the Skeets! The P-channel jfet is controlled by positive voltage and negative N-channel. I never know why they decided to switch these with mosfet. Jfet is not very good for high voltage or high current. However, they are well suited to the volume control of the stereo receiver and the signal application in the computer. Most of them can be in- 92 bags, smaller. Common JFETS 2N5952 2N5460 2N5459ESS see ARRR/THY wrist or silicon controlled rectifier or thyristor. The silicon controlled rectifier is a bit like a MOSFET or an IGBT. They have three leads, called the anode, cathode, and gate. But instead of the ability to turn on and off, they do what they call \"lock\" and do not turn off again until the circuit is powered off. The current flows from the anode to the cathode like a diode, but there are switches and gates. They usually have three leads and have a wider range than previous semiconductor packages. What are the benefits of this? Well, they are perfect for power control, motor control, light dimmer and high voltage/high amps current control! The evaluation of SCR is very generous. They are serious! Typical small package SCR like in the photo can handle about 50 amps in a row, and can handle nearly 560 amps of pulses at nearly 1200 volts! It\'s crazy, especially for such a small thing. SCR can also be used for more dangerous and interesting things like Coilguns. Due to no wear and tear, the high current capability makes them great as a replacement for mechanical switches. The SCR can handle 400 amps of the capacitor discharge. But, surprisingly, the SCR does not need a radiator when it is used for pulses! Why? Because the pulse is very small, very little heat is actually heated. It doesn\'t even have a chance to heat. SCR has a variety of packaging, from small- 92, bulky, solid brick bag and ice hockey bag. There are also earrings! There is no real \"normal\" SCR. But there are some differences here. STBTW69600 STBTW691200TRY ACKTriacA Triac is basically an SCR, in addition to the fact that SCR is good for handling DC current. TRIACS are used for AC current with a slightly different structure. Triacs can usually handle about half the amps of the same brand of SCR. The SCR of 50 amps has a Triac of 25 amps. This makes them unsuitable for coilguns because the SCR does a better job in this regard. Triacs is useful for dimming circuits with AC current ,( Anyone? ) Motor speed control (AC motors) And high voltage/high current control (again, AC). Triacs is basically anti-using two SCRparallel. ( This means that the anode of one SCR is connected to the cathode of the other! ) They share the same gate, which means that they are all triggered by the signal of the gate and therefore are able to handle the AC current. In addition to being able to handle AC current, the Triac attribute is the same as the SCR. This is the last discrete semiconductor device. Now, we\'re starting to look at things that are more complex, small and small. IC, voltage regulator, etc. The IC is basically a combination of everything I said above, and in a neat, small, mass-produced package, it\'s easier to use than 500 separate components! The voltage regulator is a special type of IC that can be heated and outputs a neat, fixed voltage signal using a voltage reference (sometimes a Zener diode. TALLY HO! ( The laser involved here, and so on) The voltage regulator is a relatively simple device. You input DC current in pin 1 and output a well-regulated voltage from pin 3. However, there are several flavors of the voltage regulator, they are essentially the same, but different or different uses. There is a positive voltage regulator and a negative voltage regulator. They all have a variety of packages from-92\'s to TO- 3\'s, sometimes even DIP packaging. They need decent heat dissipation, depending on how much voltage is dropped from the input power supply. Most voltage regulators have certain limits on the voltage input into it, and have some kind of protection to keep themselves, and the circuit it provides does not explode. The voltage regulator can handle voltage inputs below 70 volts and below. The LM350 can only handle 32-volt inputs! However, there is also an adjustable voltage regulator. In addition to the predetermined voltage on the conventional voltage regulator, these voltages can output different voltages, which makes them ideal for linear power supplies. They do generate healthy heat, and can use transistors to bypass the regulator itself, allowing more current flow than the regulator usually accepts. Most regulators can accept 1- 2 amps with over current protection. This basically means that if the current consumption exceeds the specified amount, the regulator will \"turn off\" and prevent more current flow until the load is removed or lowered. Some voltage regulators lack this, and unless you want a bunch of plastic instead of a regulator, you can provide as many amplifiers as you need to provide enough heat dissipation. Many power supplies use a voltage regulator to ensure that the voltage does not exceed a certain point. Switching mode power supply, linear power supply, some Chargers all use a voltage regulator to maintain a specific voltage over time. They are also ideal for powering logic circuits and lasers! How? Well, the laser diode needs a specific voltage. You can use a voltage regulator to keep the voltage at a certain point, and then use a Zener diode, resistor, or resistor to reduce the necessary amount of voltage and keep the current below a certain point. Otherwise, you\'re going to blow up your laser! Common voltage regulators. LM350 ( Adjustable voltage regulatorLM317 ( Adjustable, high input voltage)LM7812 ( 12 volt regulator)LM7912 (- 12 volt regulator) Note: There is some type of voltage regulator called the switch regulator. Because they need more external components (usually) But the benefit they bring is that the efficiency is greatly improved, so basically, there is less heat and less power wasted. They use so-called buck converters. It is not possible for an integrated circuit to be explained in 4000 words or less. I\'ll try to shorten the time so you don\'t sit here and watch this. An integrated circuit is a bunch of very small components placed in a package, usually a DIP package for human hands, and a very small surface-mounted package such as a SOIC or TSSOP package. Almost anything integrated circuits can do. They work for your mouse. Your computer works. The power of your computer, your speakers, your mobile phone, your monitor, your keyboard, your mouse, your ipod, your ipod charger, your printer TV, these are available in almost every electronic device because they do a lot of things! They have so many packs, flavors, types that it\'s impossible to explain all of them! There are some small ones here, which are often used by enthusiasts. 555 Timer. The 555 timer is a simple oscillation circuit used to generate a square wave. The chip is in an 8-pin DIP package and can be purchased at radioshack or almost any electronic supplier. This chip is the most widely manufactured chip on Earth. These chips are produced by millions every day because they can do a lot of things. For amateurs, they can be used to make an anti-excitation transformer driver, which is a very beautiful small circuit, and it is great for beginners to know the AC current and the transformer. An operational amplifier is a special type of integrated circuit that can be magnified several thousand times. They are perfect for many things and can be used for oscillator, Schmidt trigger ( It can turn noisy signals into clean ones. Feedback mechanism, voltage regulator ( They\'re inside! ) And audio amplifier. They can receive a very small signal, such as a crystal radio, and then turn it into something suitable for driving a normal headset. They have two inputs. Reverse and non-reverseinverting. They can output positive and negative voltage. They also benefit the voltage comparison, depending on which one is larger, the voltage will pass through the output. A good example is that the non-inverted side is 5 V and the inverted side is 10 v. Unless 5 V is increased to 15 V, the 10 v side will output 15 v. The gate-driven IC is an integrated circuit that receives signals, often and most often the sine wave, and converts it into a more powerful signal with a larger current. This is very good for high speed drive mosfet and IGBT as they allow the gate capacitance to charge faster. There are low-side, high-side, inverted, and non-inverted drives. Low-end drives are the easiest to use and therefore the most widely used! They did what they said above. High-end drives typically exist with low-end drives and can be used to drive half-bridge or two mosfet/IGBT in series. This series of modifications enables the mosfet to efficiently share the load and reduce heat generation in each FET/IGBT. The high-end driver separates the signal from the signal source to prevent the back potential or voltage spike from killing the control circuit. However, there is a price, high-end drivers often fail, it is a bit difficult to use, it takes more components and time. The reverse drive receives the signal from the signal source and then flips it. If there is a positive part of a square wave, they will turn it into neutral, and if there is a neutral part, they will turn it into a positive part. This allows to use two low-end drives from one source, and allows you to use a half-bridge without a half-bridge ic. ( They use high-end driving). Logic gates also exist. These are the gates of and, NAND, OR, NOR, XNOR, NOT, and XOR. Each performs a specific logical function. To understand the logic gate, you need to understand the binary. 1 = On, or v, 0 = off, or 0 v. Now that you understand the binary, you understand the logic gate! An AND gate have An arbitrary number of inputs and An output. An output is common in all doors. For an AND gate, all inputs need to be high and the output will be high. You can reverse it for NAND doors. All inputs need to be high for the output to be low. For one or more gates, the output is high if the input is high. For a NOR gate, if the input is high, the output is low, otherwise the output is high. If the odd number of inputs is high, the foreign or gate will be high. I. E. The 01 of the binary will be a high, while the 101 will be a low. ( Each binary is an input. The XNOR gate does the opposite, and it will be low if the odd number of inputs is high. NOT gate performs the reverse function, which flips the input signal from 1 to 0, or from 0 to 1. There are several different logic types for CMOS, TTL, nMOS, RTL, DTL, Ternary, and ECL. Everyone has logic, but it is implemented using different types of technology. CMOS uses 3. 3 V indicates high and high using complementary metal oxide semiconductors. ( Complementary N and P channel mosfet) TTL is transistor logic. It uses 5 volts for a high. nMOS uses N- Metal Oxide Semiconductor. ( Only n-channel mosfet)RTL is resistance- Transistor Logic+3. 5 V is considered high. The DTL is a diode transistor logic. +3. 5 volts is also high. The ternary logic is unknown and uses true and false, not high and low. The Emitter logic is a Emitter-coupled logic that uses a bipolar transistor. +3. 9 volts is high. All these doors make up the CPU and microprocessor inside computers, mobile phones, ipod, cd players, etc. They are the basis of basic logical functions. Reverse bias This means that the voltage flows from the cathode to the anode, or tries to flow through. This usually leads to avalanche breakdown, or the Zener diode, the Zener effect. Forward bias- This means that the voltage flows from the anode to the cathode. This will cause the voltage to drop at both ends of the diode. Biased - The bipolar junction transistor uses this to prevent the amplifier from fully opening. If there is a voltage that exceeds the saturation voltage of the transistor, the transistor does not amplify the signal, and as long as the said voltage is high, the transistor will continue as an open switch. Resistors are usually used to limit current, so if used for amplification purposes, the transistor will remain in a saturated state and below saturation state. Avalanche - See the Zina effect. Zener Effect - The Zina effect is essentially the same thing as an avalanche; Diodes or transistors ( This also means mosfet and igbt! ) Reverse bias and breakdown voltage occurs. This causes the voltage of the semiconductor to drop to a very specific level and is controlled in the Zener diode and some transistors. This effect is useful for circuit protection, voltage regulation, voltage reference, and anti-excitation topology to prevent the back potential. EMF - Magnetic field. This can be created through a variety of things. It is mainly high voltage, high current, radio frequency and inductance. When inductor ( A circle of lines in many cases) When turned off from the power supply, the inductor tries to keep the current flowing. This can sometimes lead to a sharp spike in voltage and current and can easily damage sensitive electronics. Radio frequency, high voltage, and high current EMF are the result of induced charge in wires or noise, like inductive spikes, and they can easily damage sensitive IC if not handled properly. The buffer is an effective EMF killer. Some buffers also play an avalanche and Zener effect and protect the sensitive mosfet Gate from over-voltage. Buffer circuit- The buffer circuit can consist of several parts. The simpler ones include only resistors and capacitors. They effectively absorb high pressure spikes and release them to the ground. However, this can cause problems such as ringing of the mosfet Gate and occasional reverse current release, resulting in heat. In some cases, Zener diodes and TVS diodes are also used to keep the voltage level at a reasonable level. To prevent gate ringing, a buffer circuit is also used in MOSFET Gate drive technology. Ringing - Ringing is the result of the gate capacitance and wire inductance. This may have a bad effect on the transistor; Such as explosion, melting, overheating, etc. A simple way to solve this problem? Use snu plates, ferrite body beads and shorter lead lengths. Negative resistance- The current decreases as the voltage increases. Display of tunnel diodes and fluorescent lamps; This is why ballast is needed for fluorescent tubes. Voltage Drop - Voltage drop refers to the specific amount of voltage that is basically lost on the device or object in the circuit. The Zener diode has a specific controlled voltage drop. Analog Electronics- Electronic devices that work at many voltage levels. There is no specific on or off, mainly between the two. Sine wave is a perfect example of simulation. Digital electronics- Electronic devices that work at two voltage levels, on and off. There is nothing in the middle. a good example is square wave. Square Wave - A series of pulses at which a voltage is on or off at a specific time is called a duty cycle. Duty cycle can be from 0% (fully off)to 100% (to always on). Sine Wave - A sine wave is a wave that varies greatly at the negative and positive voltage levels. This type of waveform has the least EMI and, due to its smoothing, is usually the most \"beautiful\" of all other types of waveforms. They can be created in various ways, LC tank circuit, generator and digital sine wave. ( Explain it later). Digital sine wave The digital sine wave is a series of very precise voltage changes that can generate an Graph-free case at the voltage of the on and off. Triangle Wave - Similar to a sine wave, but it is not like a smooth slope, but rather more rough and sharp, like a wave of a square. They are not used much, but they are a sign of non-resonance in LC inverters. Sawtooth wave - Jagged waves are a sudden increase and decrease in voltage. They are called Jagged waves because the pattern of the waves is very similar to the saw blade. They can be found in certain anti-excitation topology and CRT tube fly-back. Features are voltage spikes and sharp corners. EMI - Electrical interference similar to EMF. ESD - Electrostatic discharge. This is caused by simple static electricity that we all know and use, which can kill very sensitive electronic components. Use an anti- Static wristband, always make sure you are grounded correctly before touching any sensitive device. Mains Voltage - The power supply voltage is a strange way to say the power supply of the wall socket. Depending on where you live, it can be 120 v ac or 220 v ac, either 60Hz or 50 hz under a sine wave in some countries. This is lethal! Be careful when using the main voltage, the current wall socket can provide enough voltage to hurt you or kill you. Respect it. Power supply offline- Power supply offline. Basically, you plug it into the wall to generate electricity. LED - LEDs, for those who take pains to read this part. :)DIP - Double online packaging- Single package n p- Positive, negative, positive This is the vocabulary used to describe transistors, and the way to properly doping silicon. N P N - Negative positive and negative. See P N P. Doped Silicon - No, there\'s no problem with your semiconductor. The process of doping means that the silicon is not so pure, so that the function of the silicon is more in line with our preferences. More semiconductors It\'s not just a piece of shiny metal. P = positive knot, N = negative knot. Source - \"Ground\" or output of Mosfet or JFET. Drain - Input of Mosfet or JFET. ( Don\'t confuse with gate)Gate - Input signal for Mosfet, IGBT, JFET, Triac or SCR. They all need voltage instead of current to turn on. Base - The input signal area of the bipolar junction transistor. The current needs to be turned on. ( Do not confuse with the transmitter)Emitter - Output of a bipolar transistor or IGBT. Although it should not be connected to the ground in some cases. Collector - Input of a bipolar transistor or IGBT. This is where higher power usually works. Pull down resistor- This allows the gate capacitance of the IGBT/MOSFET to run out, enabling a faster shutdown speed. Gate capacitance- The electrical capacity of the MOSFET or IGBT prevents the device from turning on quickly. The capacitance of the Mosfet is usually higher than that of the IGBT. Use drop down resistor or negative voltage swing on gate drive technology. Is there any more Vocab? So, knowing all this, you might want to know exactly what I can do with these things? For amateurs, you can search everywhere for anything that needs to be built. Do you want a transistor amplifier? Look for transistor amplifiers on Google! Want a power transformer driver? Check it out, or use the one on my photo! Want a simple power supply? Looking for the \"LM317 schematic\", you will get a very simple, easy-to-read schematic of how to make a 1 amp power supply using LM317. Radio transmitter? Find the schematic diagram, the crystal oscillator in the easy-to-use can, they have a variety of different frequencies to choose from. Something more intense includes the Telsa coil, X- Can Crusher of the shooting machine, Coil Gun, induction heater. . . These are all very dangerous, dealing with a combination of high pressure, high current or both, and the risk of high temperature and eye injury. Use safety glasses. I\'m not responsible for anything stupid you do with this information. Find and study how these things work; Not only does it help diagnose problems, it also makes you smarter in terms of security. But, in general, try to stick to something that has been proven to work when looking for a schematic. Otherwise, you might get stuck with something that an idiot took together for the sake of this. Good website for some electronic enthusiasts: www. 4hv. org ( Don\'t post any pseudoscience or \"free energy\" garbage there. ; )www. hackaday. com ( This site is filled with neat electronic little things that attract the attention of writers. Find cool things to build well) There are several other single user sites that were created to showcase some of the crazy stuff they designed. Look for them on www. 4hv. org. You can find me there with the name of industry, just like here. This guide will hopefully explain a lot about all these little black things. Of course, if you want to waste your time, you can look up the part number and find out what something is doing inside. One of the big things about all this is, use the data sheet! Use data sheets. HEY. Use data sheets. If you can\'t take things apart or need a specific item, you may ask where you can get them. Order online. www. ebay. comwww. mouser. comwww. digikey. comwww. jameco. comwww. craigslist. com ( Good for free! ) Most of the information in this guide is generic, but each semiconductor is different and some manufacturers like to be weird and changeoutson you. So always check everything in the datasheet about the semiconductor you are using so you know the rating, pin- Max and max powerdissionso so you won\'t fry your poor little Silicon completely. But learning all of this is not just information, but the ability to create new things. If you\'re interested in electronics, this guide I gave you may allow you to create or conceive something amazing that no one has ever created before! But the circuit is also hard to create, which is why most simple circuits have been discovered and used. I don\'t want to spoil any hope there, but it\'s a cruel fact. However, the electronics sector is growing every day, and yet, even in the recession we are in, it has so many job openings. The reason for this is that not many people are very interested in how electrons flow. Why? Who knows, it may be because it is complicated, but there is a learning curve for electronic products. That\'s why most people drop out of college and high school if your school offers e-courses. And, electronics isn\'t the most exciting thing in the world, but it really depends on the electronics you\'re in. It would be great if you were interested in electronics. Continue to work hard because, as my teachers often say, these jobs have come at a great price. There\'s a reason why we make it so complicated. ; DAh, if there\'s anything else you don\'t understand or need help with, you can leave me a message here or on 4hv. org. Anyway, I will try my best to help you. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Each picture in this guide ( In addition to the picture of numero uno, and the picture of the circuit below) I went through the hard process of using paint. I did get some help from friends and a fancy little site called 4hv. com. Thank you very much. :) Also, I really want you guys (not sexist ; D ) Learned a little from this guide. For you super nerds, please feel free to give me a PM if there is any problem or if I am mistaken somewhere in the guide or missing something critical. Thank you for reading!