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leadlighting tutorial lesson 4: soldering a leadlight and using the right flux. making a tinning pot.
Whether you feel the most comfortable is to sit or stand.
Solder is purchased in the form of a rod or roll.
The solder on the roll looks like a wire with a thickness of about 3mm and is the easiest to use.
Keep in mind that using too much welding, or more than necessary, does not make the connection stronger, just looks very ugly.
No one saw the perfect cut you did because it was covered with lead, no one saw the perfect lead connection you worked hard to achieve because they were covered by welding, but everyone saw the welding carelessness! (
The key is steps 7, 8 and 9. )
Welding steps: Step 1.
Only use 60/40 solid core welding, do not use resin core welding, because it will leave ugly resin stains around the connection, which is difficult to clean up.
Solder is composed of tin and lead, and the first number always refers to the amount of presence of tin.
50/50 welding can also be used, but it is not preferred due to the high temperature.
The reason for using 60/40 solder is because of tin (
In the original state)
Lower than the melting point of lead.
Solder between 60/40 and 50/50, the melting point of the two types of solder varies by 45 degrees. (
The temperature listed is Fahrenheit)
This is beneficial because it reduces the risk of lead melting in lead lamps.
To further explain these melting points, 60/40 of the solder melt at 374 degrees and set at 361 degrees when cooling
13 degrees difference.
50/50 solder melt at 419 degrees, set at 365 degrees when cooling, almost at the same temperature as 60/40 solder, but the temperature difference between melting and solidification is 54 degrees.
You might think it would be easier to use because 50/50 solder has a larger band of 54 degrees. NOT SO.
Lead melts at 621 degrees, so 60/40 of solder has a greater buffer than 50/50 of solder
The buffer is 247 degrees for 60/40 solder and 202 degrees for 50/50 solder.
But in fact, we are actually welded at a much higher temperature than the melting point of the two welding materials, sometimes not far under the melting point of lead!
By using 50/50 solder, the lower the buffer is simply because of the higher melting point, making 60/40 solder safer to use.
As I know, this technical information does not scare you, but encourages you not to use 50/50 of the welding material.
Someone would say that 50/50 of welding looks better than 60/40 because it will \"hold\" on the connection and will not crash in the connection, if there is a gap in your join, this is probably the case.
Even so, if you want to be a good person, skilled lead lighter you should try to make sure that there is a minimum gap in your connection so that this does not happen, for the above reasons, the welding of 60/40 will be easier to use.
This is especially true for beginners.
Using 60/40 with a wider buffer will make it easier to successfully transition to the learning phase.
After you have mastered welding skillfully, you can try 50/50 to see if you like it, but I don\'t think there will be a lot. (
For anyone interested in making a copper foil sun lamp or lampshade, the following may be useful.
Use two welding materials for Sun Protection or Free
Standing panel, 50/50 on one side and 60/40 on the other. (
On the lampshade, it is better to use 50/50 in the interior first. )
Liquid flux in all foil work (
For use, the first surface is welded with 50/50 solder. (
The hard fat flux is not suitable for the work of frustration, and the hard fat flux is used when lead comes.
Remember what I said at the end of lesson 2, liquid flux produces toxic smoke. )
I found that the easiest way to apply liquid flux is to use cotton buds.
The way I use to weld both sides is to first weld the panels together at the strategic point on the first side, and then place a small \"spot\" along each seam every 5mm or so \".
Then, as the soldering iron moves up and down, slowly moving along the weld, as you form the melted beads, melt these spots, which will solidify as you progress.
Your goal is to try to create a uniform, rounded \"lead look\" that you may need to add welding here and there to get the results.
If your cut is not accurate, the solder will collapse and fall off in the spot, and these gaps must be filled with solder, which is not the best look.
After allowing the panel to cool, the panel is flipped, flowing again, and the second side uses 60/40 welding in the same way, but not too slow.
If you are using 60/40 solder on both sides, you are at risk with the radiator, which moves to the first side and melts the lovely seams you produce, so, by using 50/50 solder with a higher melting point than 60/40 on the first side, the risk is greatly reduced.
After the welding is completed, wash it in the water to remove the slag and then select the polishing option.
If you want to track the black look with lead polishing, you can use the black patina, which will seal it.
Copper color, or if you like silver, you can seal it with liquid silicon type car polish on it, which can also be used to seal the copper color.
If you don\'t seal it up, it will always tarnish and spoil the look.
Don\'t put it too long before you wrap it up. )Step 2.
At least 80-
Right watt soldering iron
Angle position, as shown in the above figure-
I can\'t emphasize it too much.
The advantage of it is to \"see\" the drill bit is at 90 degrees with lead, so you know that the drill bit is flat with lead, although the elements and handles are easy to keep parallel to your work.
Don\'t buy an iron with a height of 100 watts before you are skilled
120 watts first.
The advantage of an iron with a high wattage is that it has a large diameter (1/2\")
It covers a more reclined connection and they will also heat up faster, carry more waste heat and make you work faster, but it also makes them a little bit used as the first iron
Avoid chiseling because they have to maintain a certain angle and it is more difficult to maintain a flat surface contact between the tip and the lead. (
If you can\'t get an iron with a right angle drill bit, you can get a short length copper rod from the plumber supplier with the same diameter as the chisel tip and bend it 90 degrees.
Just make sure the rod is long enough to be fully inserted into the element and is close-fitting, otherwise it will burn out. )
Weiler or Robinson is a good soldering iron.
There are a lot of different prices to choose from if you buy a Weiler, which is confusing and you need to buy a high quality one ,(
Low-priced non-compliant standards)
Make sure this bit is removable before you buy it, because some types are non-mobile.
At the moment, the right angle has not been provided and you need to make one as described.
I personally think Robinson is a better quality iron, and although they are more expensive, they are right in perspective.
Robinson is made in Australia, 80-
The right-angled Watt is over $100-116 on-line. If you buy on-
Line, specify it with a right-angle bit, as it comes with it.
If you want to buy an 80-
Watt Robinson soldering iron online, you can buy Robinson soldering iron on Google, but in order to save your time, I found that the best price for Bromac Engineering in the new state of Wagga is $100.
Their phone number is 02 69 31850002 69 318500 or you can email them at sales @ bromacengineering. com.
The easiest way to buy, I told the salesman, was to call them and use your credit card.
Soldering iron part 7708-
2, specially designed for lead lighting, with right angle position.
I need to add that I don\'t have any contact with either Bromac engineering or Robinson soldering iron anyway, I just wanted to direct you to buy an iron of good quality, but you can decide on your own.
Regularly remove and clean oxidation products from drill bits (
If it\'s copper
If you don\'t do this, it will cause the bit to become \"stuck\" in the element, and you will never take it out when you need to replace the bit.
Simply represent the iron by DingTalk two horseshoe on the cardboard on the side of the lead lamp to form X.
This is to take the iron off the bench while you wait for it to be heated. Step 3.
When starting with a brand new iron or a new drill bit, make sure the tip of the drill bit is trimmed and then can be loaded at low temperatures.
Wearing a tip means putting the tip flat.
Every time you want to weld, there is no need to dress the tip, only when the tip begins to form a hollow at the end of the tip, which is not conducive to good welding, in order to achieve good connection, need flat.
So, if there is any type of hollow at the tip, do not Weld, re-Welddress it first. (
Usually the copper tip gets a hollow in the first place after a period of time, but when the nickel plating wears some tips, it also ends up forming a hollow. )
After trimming the drill bit, tin on the drill bit every time, which is coated with the tip of the tin paste on the tin pan.
How to make a Tin Pan: use only baked beans or similar steel cans in the photo above, do not use aluminum cans, welding will not stick to it.
First melt some hard fat flux to the edge at one end of the jar and then melt 50-
Put 60mm of the solder into the flux, then stir with hot iron until the solder is attached to the film at the end of the jar.
It takes some time to heat the cans-
Before use, just wait patiently and let it cool down and the flux has set.
If you try to use it before letting it cool, it will be too hot.
Don\'t empty things inside, its main job when you need it is to cool the iron;
When you use empty cans, it will heat up very quickly.
When you finish reading this lesson, the advantages of the Tin Pan will become obvious, and it will become your favorite welding equipment at very little cost. Step 4.
By lifting the lead leaf that may be folded with a lead knife, ensure that the leads are at a reasonable level with each other at the connection.
Sort it out during assembly or before welding and welding is easier. Step 5.
Thoroughly clean all lead connections with proper teeth
The brush size is the same as any of the two photos shown above.
Do not limp and twist, but do not use large industrial types to remove rust and grinding surfaces, they are too brutal on lead. Step 6.
Join the flux with the hard fat flux.
Flux is a cleaner.
Do not consider using other flux for these reasons: liquid flux is an acid that eats clothes, is not good for the skin and will dry as well and needs to be re-done
Apply before finishing.
Liquid flow may drop and damage your cartoon if there is a gap in the connection.
In some cases, liquid flux is used for specific purposes. (
See Lesson 8 when welding zinc supplements. )
The cream is a mess.
The hard grease booster is the easiest to use on lead, you rub it dry, it melts during welding and then sets after welding, so it is easy to remove.
You don\'t need an excess, just make a good powder coating on the connection to be welded is enough.
Too much friction will only allow more work to be cleaned up with the wire brush after setting.
Don\'t try to clean it up while it\'s still hot and liquid, you won\'t clean it all up.
Most people do not go back to anything they use after trying the hard fat flux because it is simple.
When you buy hard fat, it is like soap, it is bought together. (See above. )
It\'s too much trouble to use like this, like the first photo, cut it into \"chip\" sized fingers or sticks and it\'s easier to use.
You should be able to get 8 sticks from one block.
Do not cut it with a knife because it will crash and use either a hacksaw or a tennon saw.
I know that one of the suppliers that absolutely sell hard fat flux in Australia is Hartley Williams at 32 Kremzow Road.
4500 Brenda, Brisbane
Their phone number is 07 3881 197807 3881 1978.
Hard fat traffic can be hard to get if you live in other countries outside Australia.
I can only suggest to Google where to buy hard fat foam in your country.
If you email info @ hartleywilliams for those in Australia. com.
Au buy a few blocks and a block is about $4 and it will last for a while if you cut as I suggested.
The freight is not much at all, because it\'s very light-
You pay the freight by weight
It may be worth buying two blocks if you are going to make a few lead lights.
For those living in the US and Canada, the message I got from Vic Rosman in the US is that the hard fat flux can scroll down the \"products\" column at: http, click organic flux paste and you can order from them.
He suggested that it be removed from the cylindrical container and dried for a period of time before use. Step 7.
Before welding, test the tip on your tin pan;
When the tip is easy to melt and the puddle welding is easy to move the month around the tip-20mm (1\")
Now you are ready to start welding.
It\'s not hot enough if you\'re still going to get the iron through solder. (
Because there is no thermometer on the soldering iron, it is impossible to tell when the iron is hot enough to start welding.
By testing the tips on the tin pan, it will tell you when to get ready. )
When and only if the iron is at the correct temperature to start welding, apply a small amount of welding quickly on the connection
The average size lead does not exceed 3mm and it takes only about a second to do so. (
Solder should melt almost instantly under hot iron with a \"soft feel\"
Iron is still not hot enough if you have to force the solder to cut through. )
When the solder is applied to the connection, place the solder directly from the roller on the connection.
If you cover half of the connections with solder, that might be enough.
If the connection is lack of welding, you can always add more in small quantities.
Your goal is to create a beautiful flat connection for the best look and use too much welding will look messy.
Remember, when you lift the iron, pull the solder from the connection at the same time, otherwise the solder itself may stick to the connection.
Touch it quickly with an iron in the same place should release it. Step 8. Re-
Apply a small amount of flux to the top of the solder.
Don\'t be in a hurry and smash the solder;
Touch it gently and quickly.
Since the welding you applied only 2 or 3 seconds ago in step 7 is still hot, it melts the flux when you touch it gently, apply a layer of film flux to the soldering tin to make step 9 better.
It doesn\'t take a long time to realize that the flux is a magical ingredient during welding.
Try to build a reasonably fast, continuous rhythm, don\'t be too fast, you will stumble over yourself, and don\'t stumble at a snail-like speed.
In this step, learn about your tin pan by preventing the iron from overheating. Step 9.
Apply more heat from the soldering iron to make the solder paste liquid, heat the lead and count 1 ,-2, -3. (
This means 2 full seconds. )
It is very important to Heat lead to a point where it is welded with lead and becomes lead.
If you try to weld too fast in this step, this is actually the same as welding too cold, because the speed does not heat the lead at all to cause \"explosion\", known as \"cold bonding\"
Bad bonding can lead to this, and it can also get rough because when you lift the iron from the connection, the weld chase the iron just because the bonding is not in enough heat
It must be hot for a nice flat connection.
Remember to \"like\" the two leads are the same as the soldering iron so that the two leads are heated at the same time-
Don\'t cover only one thread.
Sometimes, when you lift the iron from the lead after it is done, if you lift it too fast or too slow, if it is not done at the right speed, soldering tin may chase the iron(
Please make sure this is not because you are trying to weld too fast/too cold as mentioned above. )
If this happens while welding, you know you either lift too fast or lift too slowly.
Fortunately, it has a fairly wide band between too fast and too slow, so it doesn\'t take a long time to find the right speed.
It is a very good idea to practice these last 3 steps before opening the iron.
Take the time to adapt to the rhythm you need to develop.
Some people are used to welding other metals and are surprised to find that lead can melt under very hot iron.
Remember that hot pot box!
When you practice steps 7, 8 and 9 cold, practice is like you are going to weld four or five connections in a row, not just on one connection, which helps to develop the rhythm.
Remember to also calculate 123 during the practice, even if it is only in your mind, because it is part of the rhythm of adaptation.
It\'s easy to get yourself organized.
If you are the right hand, you will hold the iron pot in that hand, and the iron pot is on your right.
Your left hand will hold the tin paste roll you put down, pick up the tin paste in your left hand and also do step 8.
You will soon realize that if you hold the flux \"chip\", or hold on between the index finger and the middle finger, pointing forward like an extended finger, you can still hold the solder roll with the same hand and you just pick up and put one object instead of two.
If you can do this quickly during the practice, it will soon become a second nature.
The left hand and vice versa.
When you practice smoothly enough and do these steps without hesitation or error, you can now turn on the iron.
You may find it easier to start welding by spreading about 250mm of the solder from the roll.
Some people prefer to take soldering tin by themselves, some prefer to take rolls, and I like to take rolls.
This length will be reduced soon when you weld, and more welding must be carried out.
This is where you put the iron on the cross you made with two horseshoe nails, and then quickly expand the other length from the roll.
So, because you \'ve paused for a while, cool down on the hot pot for a few seconds before proceeding.
Speed of welding.
As your experience and welding techniques improve, you will find that your \"speed\" will be in place so quickly that you spend less and less time cooling the iron on the tin pan, because when you weld at the right speed, the iron will naturally cool from the cold lead in the lead lamp and keep it at a stable temperature.
Once you have set the right rhythm, the only time you need to \"know the hot pot meal\" is when you stop for any reason.
I call this \"before the heat \".
Only when you slow down and follow behind the tropics do you need to remember your tin pan to avoid overheating. (
When I first started teaching, I was surprised to find that none of the students in my class had previously studied lead lighting and now started teaching again, mainly because they didn\'t have any notes, forgot most things and never heard of Tin Pan before.
From that day on, they were all surprised by the value of a hot pot.
I even bet that most people who read this lesson have never heard of it!
I have been asked many times at different stages, why are you telling us all your secrets?
First of all, they are not my secrets, even if they are my secrets, I do not want to die with them, so I have no right to them.
Yes, I \"invented\" something myself, but most of these methods are taught voluntarily by industry professionals so that others can benefit, and I appreciate my guidance, so, who am I? keep things secret. )Step 10.
The welding connection will not be completed until smooth and flat.
If the addition is not satisfactory, let it cool a bit and work again, but don\'t go too far.
Remember, you \'ve heated the lead to a point.
Numbers 1, 2 should be enough. Step 11.
When it is finished, brush off the excess flow vigorously and clean it completely in vacuum. Step 12.
After welding the panel on the first side, check and make sure all connections have been welded and it is easy to miss one or two connections;
It must now be turned over and welded to the second side.
This is not difficult if it is small, but need to be careful when they reach the door panel size and larger.
For the door panel size, it is the same as removing a piece of glass from the bench and sliding half of the panel on the bench.
Rotate to vertical and turn the panel and then reverse the process.
For the complete side
Lite panel, it\'s better to leave it on the board it makes.
Remove two beads, one farthest from you and one at the other end.
With the help of another person, remove the board and lead light from the bench and put it in front of the bench.
Just make sure you lower it to the floor and it doesn\'t lean forward.
Then, with the help of another person, remove the lead light from the board and rotate it to the end so that the unwelded side is now up.
Put it back on the blackboard and put everything back on the bench.
Now, you find out how good you cut the lead wire and it\'s very close!
If there is any serious gap, you may have to use the repair technique in 2nd of the last paragraph of this lesson.
The second side saw the mark of a good lead lighter.
Make a hot pot.
Do not Weld without one;
It helps to keep the safe temperature of the soldering iron when you work. (See step 3. )
It also cleans up tips every time you go there.
Try to get into a rhythm where the iron works longer than it turns off, which prevents the iron from overheating.
Therefore, after completing Step 9, do not spend too much time checking the connection before continuing the next connection.
A quick glance will tell you if you can.
Remember that whenever the iron stops working, it heats up quickly and if it is at work, place it on a tin pan.
Your tin pan will be your best friend when you weld.
If you notice that the solder has changed from bright silver to dim gray, the iron is too hot, hurry to cool it on the tin pan and try to work a little faster.
This color change occurs a millisecond before the lead melts!
This is something you need to pay attention to and be wary of, especially when you weld too slowly --
Speed up can solve this problem.
As mentioned in lesson 2 and above, the only toxic smoke comes from the liquid flux and you get the smoke from the hard fat flux, which is not excessive or dangerous, if it bothers you, you can disperse the smoke with a fan.
But I have found from my own experience that if you blow the fan directly in your work, you never seem to get a good result --
So, let the fan blow over your head, not on your work, so that\'s OK.
During the welding process, move the tip up and down on the connection, but do not paint ,(
This is moving the tip in the direction of rotation)
This distracts the solder to form a \"edge\" that is difficult to flatten \".
80-on the position
The watt soldering iron is wide enough to cover most lead connections separately, so no painting is required.
At the T intersection, you can apply the solder paste to this connection with 3mm of the amount (as in step 7)
However, if the connection forms X, two separate 3mm is applied on both sides of the \"through\" lead.
When welding the sharp angle with a long connection, you can first put down two or more quantities of welding and then start from the narrow end after re-welding
Assist, drag the iron along the connection.
Keep the iron at a very small angle with the lead so that it is like a small bulldozer and then, after a slight pause, lift it smoothly at the end of the connection. (
You can drag, but don\'t draw. )
Don\'t be tempted to use a temperature controller --
Learn to use a tin pan to control the temperature as you will tend to weld too cold with a controller. (
See Step 9 for Too Cold welding. )
Be careful with your tin pan --
Welding still makes some people nervous, which causes some people not to \"keep up with speed\" and should be overcome in practice.
However, if you spend too much time on your tin pan, it will eventually get hot too, instead of cooling the iron as it should.
If you can do it right in practice, there won\'t be any impact on turning on the iron.
It is OK for your hotpot to get hot, but it will never get hot.
A way to tell if your pot is just warm
In addition to where you cool the iron, the flow on the tin pan should be mostly kept in a solid state.
If the flux is completely melting and liquid, you spend too much time on the hotpot, and the hotpot heats the contents again, causing the flux to melt.
Once you get to this state, the hot pot can\'t work properly.
When you reach the speed, you hardly need to continue using the hotpot pot because, as I have already said, when your speed is correct, the cold lead in the lead lamp will automatically cool your iron.
Sometimes, spots of solder will fall on the glass.
Resist the temptation to pick it up with a soldering iron tip because it can cause the glass to break. (
Glass can withstand uniform heating in all places, but cannot be heated quickly in local areas. )
You may get away with it 9 times out of 10 times, but if this happens, you will never do it again.
Simply let it cool and turn it off.
If it falls on lead, then welding will not attach to lead with no flux.
If you are using leadlight for the first time and have never welded leadlight before, then even with 12 points, the steps above are a bit daunting and actually only 3 steps.
Therefore, in order to simplify the actual process and break it down into 3 steps, first, it places a small amount of solder joints on the connection ,(7)then re-fluxing, (8)
Finally, more heat is applied to flatten and glue the connection. (9)
There is no need to panic about welding, I have never taught anyone who can\'t get a quick grasp of the process, and when they finish welding the second side of the practice panel, most people become very proficient in welding.
The secret of good welding is to have the perfect lead connection first, and secondly to learn the heat control, depending on the speed, and to use the Tin Pan if necessary.
I cannot emphasize enough the first point in the above sentence as it is the cornerstone of good welding.
It\'s easy to do this, second.
Again I would suggest making the simple panel described in lesson 2.
Not much money-
You can use some scrap glass because the volume of the glass is not larger than your palm and it takes about an hour to make it.
By doing this simple exercise, before you weld your pride and joy, you will learn to weld correctly on this panel more happily.
Oh please, remember the hot pot when you study!
Repair Technology: if the worst happens and you burn a hole in the lead, it can be fixed as follows.
First of all, since this is a hassle, the iron cools down and then quickly fills the hole with solder paste.
Let this cool a little (
Keep the iron cool at the same time)and then re-
Apply some flux to the connection.
Welding is no longer required, but heat is applied on the welding of the filled hole, the heat is applied to the leads on both sides of the hole, slightly applied to the hole, let the heat dissipate to the area welded in the hole, this will flatten the connection.
Pay close attention to this and watch it happen, move the iron to the other side of the connection and repeat once it starts to flatten.
Remember, this is the repair work and the best you can do is the best you can do.
If for any reason, the old lead lamp must be re-used
Welding in certain areas for repair, it must first be removed from the frame and placed flat on the bench
You can\'t weld vertically.
There will be a lot of oxidation reaction between the connection and the surrounding lead, and before you successfully reconnect, you must completely remove these oxidation reactionsWelding connection.
Scrape with your lead knife to attach about 10mm of the lead surface on both sides until it turns into a bright and shiny new color.
You have to scrape deep and go back to the bare metal to remove the oxidation.
Then brush the connection vigorously with a brush to remove as much dirt as possible accumulated in the connection.
If it is not clean, the dirt will rise to the surface during heating, which will only prevent the welding from successfully attaching to the connection.
Use a lot of flow and heat.
Even after cleaning as best as possible, it\'s hard to get the perfect fix.
Lesson 1: cutting glass of colored glass lead lamp correct lead lamp Tutorial Lesson 2: How to make lead lamp.
Start with a simple clear glass lead lamp. Design choice.
Lesson 3 of the Leadlight Tutorial: Assembly of Leadlight and useful tips.
Lesson 4 of lead lamp Tutorial: weld lead lamp and use the correct flux.
Make a hot pot.
Lesson 5 of the Leadlighting Tutorial: measurement and other things you need to know.
Led lighting Tutorial Lesson 6: advanced glass cutting-
Method of difficult shape.
Led lighting Tutorial Lesson 7: how to repair damaged led lighting Tutorial Lesson 8: strengthen-
How, when, where and why.