- COB LED Heat Sink
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- Lighting Housing
- Grow Light
- Commercial LCD Display
designing sustainable on-site chp systems.
The system of large-scale simulation construction projects needs to be designed from the traditional mini-utility-
CHP type system has large volume/floor area, high cost and high thermal qualityrecovery-steam-
Generator and 24/7 stationary engineers.
This paper demonstrates pre-made, anti-slip-
A mixed steam generator with an internal title is installed, fully integrated with the low pressure drop heat coil located at the gas turbine exhaust station, using an environment-friendly heat transfer fluid.
The proposed thermal tracking integrated CHP gas cooling system includescoupled plate-and-
Frame heat exchanger, pump and self
Adjustment control, through closed, low
Pressure, non-volatile recycling circuits capable of effective years-
Round heat to on-
Requires HVAC including absorption cooler and R & D building radiator.
The available waste heat is directly transmitted to a gas turbineexhaust extraction, heat exchanger, interconnected cycle, off
Circuit, non-volatile, low level
Pressure heat transfer fluid circuit.
Available waste heat is Cascade for cooling, heating and domestic hot water loads in multi-building spaces, which allows to maintain a high logmean-temperature-
The difference on the subject extraction coil significantly reduces the return of the gas turbine
Great pressure and great life
Cycle cost savings.
These benefits have been demonstrated in a recent comparative CHP study.
A 5 mw gas turbine unit on the campus of Central California.
Expanding energy today
Sustainable development is no longer an option in a Hungry World-
It has become the standard for design professionals.
What does the term \"sustainability\" mean, it is different from building sustainability or cooling --heating-power (CHP)sustainability?
Ray Anderson, chairman of Interface Company
Cited as \"sustainability means allowing a generation to meet their needs without depriving future generations of the way they need to be met,\" the board of directors of TheASHRAE approved the \"building sustainability\" position paper on June 23, 2002, stating that, \"ASHRAEsupports uses building sustainability as a means of providing safety, a healthy, comfortable indoor environment, while also limiting the impact on natural resources on the planet.
Anderson used the words \"let a generation meet their needs.
Mechanical, electrical, plumbing)
A real consultant.
The world needs proof (or sustain)value-
Bring additional benefits to customers.
What\'s the better way to attract chp money with life? cycle cost (LCC)
Choose a methodology among traditional and more attractive CHP alternatives to ensure customer commitment, thereby advancing the sustainability of the overall green project?
Other factors besides LCC analysis include waste heat alternative energy utilization, skill set for building operators, reliability, local utilities
Time billing costs, related environmental issues, and green marketing advantages to re-focus on initial customer goals when setting long-term goals
Budget, architectural design and operational parameters.
This is especially true when considering employment.
Partially or entirely rely on local gas and power companies to cool the CHP system for its new or refurbished large sitescale, tenant-
Construction facilities are occupied or leased.
In doing so, we must ask realistically: How predictable is the future cost of energy, and what is the current world situation?
Looking at the traditional design mini
Utility type CHP factory, is it practical to continue to use large, bulky and expensive heatrecovery-steam-generators (HRSGs)for 3.
5 MW and above building applications?
In addition, is HRSGs still suitable as the most effective means of waste heat extraction and, if not, what alternatives are available?
Research shows that the cost of HRSG is not proportional, requiring 24/7 operators to comply with code security, and also requiring high costs
Pressure steam and condensate distribution system, as well as the architectengineer (A/E)
Concerned about local contractors familiar with the CHP system.
Other issues include suspicious purchases that specify \"or equivalent\" HVAC & R (
Heating, ventilation, air-
Air conditioning and refrigeration)
Components, as well as the owner\'s concerns about the availability of operator skill sets.
These concerns and challenges often lead to disruption of transactions by owners and their financing over-conservative cogeneration construction budgets and associated risk factors.
Run HRSG under turbine cycle conditions to better understand the properties of HRSGs operating in combination with gas
Figures 1a and 1b illustrate the time delay associated with the three representative starts
Upgrade procedures for combustion gas turbines listed (CGT)
Operating at a flow rate of 500,000 to 4,000,000 lb/hour (63 to 504 kg/s)
Depending on the required exhaust flow rate, the minimum downtime required to fully shut down will result in a hot start.
The maximum downtime can also cause cold start.
The full closure of the CGT will also affect the operating temperature within the downstream HRSG.
To reduce turbine downtime, an \"soakperiod\" device can be used to heat the internal turbine surface during downtime. [
Figure 1 slightly]
HRSGs for general stable operation of large enterprises
Due to cyclic thermal stress fatigue, power plants of scale may not be suitable for cyclic building loads.
This effect is attributed to their inherent large thermal mass, especially when tracking high circulation, transient, and variable daily heat requirements such as building space and home hot water heating and air-
Adjust the load.
Refer to Figure 2, note that the effect of the turbine cycle on the service life of the HRSG head can be expressed in inches as the initial crack depth, whereas for the specified HRSG operating temperature and the head pipe material, the remaining is expressed in hours. Piper 2002).
For example, for 1. 00 in. (25. 4 mm)
The crack depth that appears in the newly installed HRSG head of the material type and operating temperature, as shown in the figure, only 12 cycles per year will accelerate the failure rate of the same HRSG operating under utilities by about 560% over the expected
For the above reasons, under the construction load operation of the height cycle, type \"stable operation\"
The reference HRSG head failure rate can be further accelerated and more frequent monitoring is required, which can also be demonstrated in additional gas
Turbine downtime required for internal inspection of HRSG.
In addition, although 9% chromiummoly steels (9Cr-1Mo)
Since 1980, this alloy has been successfully applied in fossil boilers in the United States.
Called P91 in pipe, called T91 in pipe application)
In order to reduce the thermal fatigue and creep damage of the main steam pipe and temperature reducer, it is also applied in large HRSGs, although the success is limited. Combined-
The cycle plant encountered significant problems with this alloy in the manufacture, production and repair of the P91/T91 components.
For example, HRSG users must respond to faults in different metal welds and transition areas within less than 1000 working hours, and within less than 5000 working hours due to poor weld geometry or improper heat treatmentSwankamp 2002).
The ICHP/gc application of the cyclically integrated CHPgas cooling system has also been explored, and they are beyond the scope of this study, which aims to simply handle gas turbines
Power applications for circulating ICHP/gc. [
Interaction between many of the available chiller technologies on the market today, single-and two-
Phase lithium (LiBr)
It turns out that the absorption chiller is the most expensive-
Convert high top loop options available
Temperature waste heat, e. g. ,350[degrees]F-400[degrees]F (177[degrees]C-204[degrees]C)
At the end of the bottom cycle of the available cascade low temperature waste heat, E. G. g. , 200[degrees]F-250[degrees]F(93[degrees]C-121[degrees]C), ammonia-
Water and triethylene glycol (DEMTEG)
Also provide cost-
Efficient production of ice for various thermal energy storage (TES)
Options that can significantly reduce the design-
Meet daily cooling needs by affecting the above dimensions and operating costs
Refer to the topping cycle absorption chiller.
Achieve the above objectives
On-site cogeneration systems need to \"jump out of the proverbial box\" to identify similar convergence opportunities by improving the engineering performance of gas turbines with lower primary energy and overall capital costs. Close-
Coupled turbine inlet cooling by two-
Stage and/or-stage steam (or hot water)
It is conducive to improving the power performance of steam turbine.
Indirect launch 2-Stage and single
The first-class LiBr absorption chiller is activated by steam, and the chilled water can also be directly generated by using residual heat.
In fact, efforts to provide turbine exhaust directly to the improved two enginesDirect gas-
The LiBr absorption chiller configuration that has been on fire has been demonstrated (Berry et al. 2004, 2005;
Meckler and Hyman 2005; Pathakjiet al. 2005).
System Description after determining the HRSG operational issues and capital cost issues described earlier, the author decided to look for an alternative, lower
The cost means of extracting turbine exhaust waste heat without sacrificing the overall cogeneration cycle efficiency. CGT back-
When trying to select HRSGs for preselected 3, the pressure performance impact is investigated.
Power requirement of 5 MW.
The authors found that the range of pressure drop for the relevant HRSG was 4. 5 to 6. 5 in. w. g. (1121 to1619 Pa)
Depends on the manufacturer.
This corresponds to a 0. 75%to 1.
Rated CGT turbine power output loss of 5%.
When selecting the CGTexhaust coil, it is determined that the turbine back pressure can be reduced by a factor of 1: 4, and its substitution can also improve the performance of CGTpower.
Therefore, it has been determined that the CGT power loss can be greatly reduced as an alternative,
Reference hrsg with low thermal mass and low pressure drop extraction coils.
To achieve a high log, this extraction coil will be placed directly in the exhaust flow
Average temperature difference (LMTD).
In this way, the back pressure of the CGT can be reduced to about 1. 0 to 1. 5in. w. g. (249 to 374 Pa)
Matching or exceeding the equivalent hsg design waste heat extraction rate by requiring a smaller extraction coil surface with a larger fin spacing.
Heat tracking CHP utilization can be maximized by maintenance year
The round high LMTDs of the ICHP/gc CGT extraction coil helps to reduce the temperature of the discharge gas of the CGT.
When selecting a turbine exhaust coil (TGEC)
For ICHP/gc applications, import and export waste gas and high
Temperature Heat transfer liquid (HTHTF)
The temperature must be specified for parallel or counter-current configuration.
The temperature changes that occur on the TGEC from the inlet to the outlet are not linear.
The exact temperature change between the above turbine exhaust gas and the HTHTF fluid flow is best represented by LMTD.
LMTD is based on the higher temperature difference (HTD)
And lower temperature difference (LTD)
As follows: LMTD = (HTD -LTD)/ln(HTD/LTD)
The following standard restrictions apply:.
Calculate In using the natural logarithmic base. b.
There is a constant flow rate of TGEC and HTHTF. c.
The total heat transfer coefficient is constant. d.
The HTHTF fluid temperature is uniform on the tube cross section. e.
The loss of heat is negligible.
The use of several commercial HTHTFs was explored, and several criteria were found to comply with environmental friendly and non-volatile, low and low viscosity, and stability at operating temperatures in the 150 [range]degrees]F to 600[degrees]F(66[degrees]C to 316[degrees]C).
Description of the comparison system two comparative cogeneration systems were developed to partially meet the electrical, cooling and heating requirements of the UC campus.
These systems are the same in terms of turbine configuration, but differ in the way the exhaust heat is extracted and utilized.
One alternative uses a traditional power generation arrangement with HRSG, and the other uses an integrated CHP/gas cooling system (ICHP/GCS)approach.
Schematic reference figure 3 for traditional factories, schematic reference figure 4 for ICHP/gc factories.
The size of these plants is to meet the average basic power load on the campus (About 3. 5 MW).
However, to meet the demand for electricity, CGTwill declined during the weekend and other relatively low Camp check-in times.
It is found that it is not economical to export energy to the service sector, because the cost of producing electricity is usually greater than the amount of electricity exported by the utility sector. [
Figure 3 slightly][
Figure 4 slightly]
The power, cooling and heating loads used in the analysis are based on actual campus data with an average of four seasonal 24-hour profiles.
The CGT used in both alternatives has fuel consumption (at 3.
Monthly MWelectric output)of 42. 7 x [10. sup. 6]Btu/h (12. 5 x [10. sup. 6]W).
The efficiency of the boilers used in both options is assumed to be 80%, and the efficiency of the electric chillers used in each selection is assumed to be 0. 6 kW/ton (COP = 5. 9).
The traditional cogeneration plant the traditional plant uses an HRSG to produce highpressure steam(HPS)
For driving two-
Assume a stage absorption cooler with a steam consumption of 9 lbs/ton (1. 2 kg/kW)
In being lowered to lowPressure Steam (LPS).
Then heat hot water with LPS (HHW)
Distributed to the campus.
Any energy not used by the plant is rejected by the dump condenser.
Then, the cooling water with a large cooling density of the radiator.
Balance of heating and cooling load not supplied by cogeneration plant gas supply
Boiler and electricity-
Centrifugal Chiller driven.
The inherent self of the ICHP/CGS factory
Adjusted ICHP/Glasgow meets nominal 1040 tons (3658 kW)
Our cooling requirements for 3.
5 MW of campus projects, by hiring lower levels that are more efficient and commercially available
Use commercially available, with a smaller footprint and a nominal 40 tons (844 kW)two-
Assuming a heat rate of 10,600 Btuh/ton (COP = 1. 13)
The type shown in figure 5.
ICHP/gc factory can work with control, board-and-
Frame heat exchanger, turbine inlet cooling coil, pump, interconnect pipe and CGT residual heat discharge coil and prefabrication (for minimal on-site erection)
Note that HTHTF was initially supplied to the nominal 240 tons (844 kW)two-
Stage hot water type absorption cooler running parallel to nominal800 tons (2814 kW)15 psig (103 kPa)steam-heated single-
Assume a stage absorption cooler with a heat rate of 17. 5 lb/ton (2. 3 kg/kW).
Exhaust unit for ICHP/gc plantto-
Heat exchanger HTHTF (HEX)
Eliminate exhaust heat by heating HTHTF from [about 50 _ 0]degrees]F to 600[degrees]F (121[degrees]C to 316[degrees]C).
Hthtf first provides a mixed hexadecimal system that produces LPS.
LPS for driving single-
Stage absorption cooler.
Then HTHTF is used to drive two-
And go to a plate-and-
The frame hex of HHW is generated.
Pay attention to hot water (DHW)
In order to further utilize the Heat recovered, it can also be produced.
However, in the specific cases analyzed here, most of the recovered heat is used to buffer and cool the demand, and the dumping of recovered heat is rare.
Due to the thermal temperature and quality requirements of various system components, the thermal utilization rate is arranged in this order.
For example, two-
The maximum temperature of the primary absorption cooler is 425 [degrees]F (218[degrees]C).
Therefore, some heating must be used before heating twice
Stage absorption cooler.
Although the most effective way to use heat is to produce hardware before heating twice
The stage absorbs the cooler, and the simultaneous campuscooling and heating loads do not allow the HHW hex to always reduce the HTHTF to less than 425 [degrees]F (218[degrees]C).
The first in order is the stage absorption chiller.
Because the hhw hexadecimal requirements are lower
Temperature HTHTF two-
The stage absorbs the cooler, placing a hexadecimal system downstream of the cooler.
Like traditional factories, the balance of heating and cooling loads not provided by the cogeneration plant is provided with gas
Ignition boiler and electricity-
Centrifugal Chiller driven.
Summary of comparative life-
Cycle Results Capital Cost Comparison Table 1 shows approximate differential material costs for major equipment.
The same equipment in both factories is not included in the estimate.
As shown in Table 1, the main equipment cost of the conventional plant is about $250,000 higher than that of the hthtf plant.
The energy cost comparison prepares an energy model to calculate the difference in energy use and cost between the two plants.
Table 2 summarizes the energy costs of the two plants.
The assumed electricity and gas prices are shown in Table 3.
Table 4 shows an annual summary of energy costs for traditional plants, and Table 5 shows an annual summary of energy costs for ICHP/CGS. [
Figure 5 Slightly]
Table 2 shows that the annual energy cost of conventional plants is about $120,000 lower than that of HTHTF plants.
This is mainly due to the use of two traditional plants-
Provide more recycling energy for campus heating.
This led to a reduction in boiler usage in traditional factories and a reduction in natural gas costs.
This slightenergy cost loss avoids the need to operate ICHP/gc above a15 psi (103 kPa)steam pressure.
While from the perspective of energy economics, the ichp/gc system listed in Table 2 has higher annual energy costs, this is not necessarily negative from an environmental perspective.
This is because the relative annual average cost of naturalgas is one dollar. per-
Unit volume or power on Adollar-per-kilowatt-
Delivery time at any US location is inherent --
Specifically, it will vary depending on the applicable rate structure.
When considering sustainability from an environmental perspective, it is necessary to first estimate the energy content of the fuel provided to service power companies by each purchase of kW power company
Hours and energy content per 1000 [ft. sup. 3](28. 3[m. sup. 3])
Natural gas delivered based on comparable energy bases adjusted for transmission losses.
The personnel and maintenance costs of the two factories were compared, and the personnel and maintenance costs were calculated.
Table 6 summarizes the differences in costs.
As with the above equipment cost, the same cost is not included.
As shown in Table 6, the significant difference is due to the cost of 24/7 fixed engineers in the traditional case, due to the use of HPS.
The traditional case assumes six complete
Time carriers cost $80,000 a year.
The ICHP/gc case assumes a complete-time operator (
40 hours per week)
$80,000 a year.
The cost burden of $80,000 per year is heavy, including wages, payroll taxes, social insurance, health care, retirement, etc.
Annual operating and maintenance costs for traditional plants are $400,000 higher than for ICHP/gc plants. 20-Year Life-
Cycle cost based on the above capital, energy and maintenance costs, 20-yearlife-cycle cost (LCC)
Prepared a comparison.
LCC analysis is a process of calculating the cost of the system, not only in a specific period of time, but also in the life cycle of the system.
Periodic cost analysis is a process that takes into account the time value of money.
The prepared LCC analysis assumes a discount rate of 6%, an operation and maintenance upgrade rate of 3%, and an energy upgrade rate of 2%.
The discount rate equates future values to present values.
That is, the discount rate is the number used to determine the present value of the equivalent given some future dollar values.
In general, the discount factor should be equal to long-
The long-term cost of money.
Table 7 summarizes the LCC comparison and shows an estimated LCC savings of more than $4 for HTHTF plants compared to traditional plants.
Summary and conclusion ICHP/gc system is easier to operate and more users in essence-
Friendly and responsive variable check-in cold and heat load higher than traditional mini
The cogeneration plant has reduced the size of the HRSGs.
A major benefit is the cancellation of the demand for 24/7 fixed engineers in the regular CHP base case (
Please note that a completetime 40-hour-per-
In the ICHP/gc case, it is still assumed that weekoperator).
The ICHP/gcsschemicly shown in Figure 4 is suitable for smaller-
Prefabricated Vertical mixing steam generator covers an area.
These can be installed on a modular slide with pipes and controls for quick opening
On-site interconnect with similar functional integration devicesg.
, Preheating exchanger and pump
Connect to the module through a pipe and identify the connection point for easy opening
Use the live interconnect before charging with HTHTF.
Avoiding HRSGs also provides a CHP balance for the following plants (BOP)advantages: 1.
Eliminate the delay of cold start time. 2.
The ability to track changes in circular fast building HVAC and Rload has been improved. 3.
Eliminate expensive \"soak period\" equipment to reduce hsg start-upup times. 4.
Eliminate expensive HRSG foreign materials to withstand thermal cycling. 5.
More frequent inspections of HRSGs are required to monitor potential title failures.
The advantages claimed by ICHP/gc include: 1.
The heat quality of the hybrid steam generator is small and can respond quickly to different building HVAC & R loads. 2. Low-
The pressure operation of the HTHTF recycling circuit eliminates the requirement of 24/7 fixed engineer code requirements. 3.
Reduced CTG exhaust coil pressure drop improves CTGpower performance. 4.
Lower overall lifecycle cost. 5.
Reduced installation time and operational complexity. 6.
Reduced downtime and overall footprint of the CHP system.
ASHRAE\'s policy statement on global warming actually knows that greenhouse gases are related to global warming and now its members must take it seriously.
Ashrae mep members responsible for engineering construction facilities for 20 to 30 years can pass the cost on average-
An effective health protection center today.
ASHRAE building sustainability goals may be significantly improved through efficiency and value --based on-
Use the lcc method to distinguish the on-site CHP system.
References and bibliography Berry, J. B. , E. Mardiat, R. Schwass, C.
Braddock and E. Clark. 2004. Innovative on-
On-site integrated energy system testing.
Minutes of the 8 th world conference on renewable energy in DenverBerry, J. B. , R. Schwass, J. Teigen, and K. Rhodes. 2005.
The advancedabsortion cooler converts the air conditioning of the turbine exhaust.
Minutes of Denver International adsorption heat pump conference, CO, No. ISHPC-095-2005. Butler, C. H. 1984.
Co-generation engineering, design, financing and regulatory compliance.
New York: Macquarie-Hill, Inc. Kehlhofer, R. 1991. Combined-
Cycle gas and steam turbine power plants.
Melbourne, Georgia: Fairmont PressMardiat, E. R. 2006.
Everything is big in Texas, including the health care center.
Workshop 36, practical energy and economic outcomes of the CHP plant.
ASHRAESeminar recorded a DVD at the ASHRAE 2006 winter conference in Chicago.
Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air
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Cool prescription: mixed cogen/ice-
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Designated Engineer, April. Meckler, M. 2002.
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\"Applied Thermal Engineering\", pp, November. 535-43.
Edinburgh, UK: Permagon Press. Meckler, M. 2003.
June, IE engineer, planning for an era of uncertainty. Meckler, M. 2004.
Sustainable development through innovation.
Engineering System, January. Meckler, M. , and L. B. Hyman,. 2005.
Heat tracking CHP and gas cooling.
Probably engineering systems. Orlando, J. A. 1996.
Design Guide for cogeneration.
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Air conditioning engineer LimitedPathakji, N. , J. Dyer, J. B. Berry, and S. Gabel. 2005. Exhaust-
Heaters and reference designs facilitate the use of IES technology.
Denver, CO, Document No. , minutes of the International Solar Heat Pump ConferenceISHPC-096-2005. Payne, F. W. 1997.
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Melbourne, Georgia: Fairmont PressPiper, J. 2002.
HRSG must be designed for bicycles.
Power Engineering, May, pp. 63-70. Punwali, D. V. , and C. M. Hulbert. 2006.
Cool or not.
Power Engineering, February, page. 18-23. Swankamp, R. 2002. Handling nine-
Chrome plated steel for HRSG: Steam-
With the use of P91/T91 and other advanced alloys increasing, the factory industry is in trouble.
Power Engineering, February, page. 38-50.
Explore the design and construction of the director, Harrah\'s sEntertainment, Inc.
Ma: Is the system discussed in the demo really installed?
Kyle Landis: No, the system is not installed.
This paper is based on a comparative study of cooling, heating, electric load distribution and energy cost information on the UC campus.
Milton Meckler, sports researcher/Lifelong member Ashley Lucas
Hayman, PE member Ashray Kyle Landis, PE member Ashray Milton Meckler, is president of design and build systems, Los Angeles, California.
Lucas Hayman is the president and Kyle Landis is an engineer at Goss engineering, Corona, CA.