2: Andreas Vesalius:- He was born December 31, 1514 and died October 15, 1564. He was an anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body). Vesalius is often referred to as the founder of modern human anatomy. Vesalius is the Latinized form of Andreas van Wesel. He is sometimes also referred to as Andreas Vesal, Andre Vesalio and Andre Vesale.
3: Arthur Holly Compton:- He was born September 10, 1892 and died March 15, 1962. HE was an American physicist and Nobel laureate in physics for his discovery of the Compton effect. He served as Chancellor of Washington University in St. Louis from 1945 to 1953.
4: Albert Bruce Sabin:- He was born August 26, 1906 and died March 3, 1993.He was an American medical researcher best known for having developed an oral polio vaccine.
5: The Venerable Pope John Paul II:- He was born 18 May 1920 and died 2 April 2005. He reigned as Supreme Pontiff of the Roman Catholic Church and Sovereign of Vatican City from 16 October 1978 until his death on 2 April 2005. His was the second-longest documented pontificate; only Pope Pius IX served longer (St. Peter the Apostle is reputed to have served for more than thirty years as the first pontiff, but documentation is too sparse to definitively support this). He has been the only Slavic or Polish Pope to date, and was the first non-Italian Pope since Dutch Pope Adrian VI in 1522.
6: Marie Sklodowska Curie:- She was born 7 November 1867 and died 4 July 1934. she was a Polish-born French physicist and chemist famous for her work on radioactivity. She was a pioneer in the field of radioactivity and the first person honored with two Nobel Prizes-in physics and chemistry. She was also the first female professor at the University of Paris.
7: Hippocrates:- He was born ca. 460 BC and died ca. 370 BC. Hippokrates was an ancient Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Athens), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine. He is referred to as the father of Western medicine in recognition of his lasting contributions to the field as the founder of the Hippocratic School of medicine. This intellectual school revolutionized medicine in ancient Greece, establishing it as a discipline distinct from other fields that it had traditionally been associated with (notably theurgy and philosophy), thus establishing medicine as a profession.
8: Eratosthenes:- He was born c. 276 BC and died c. 195 BC. He was a Greek mathematician, elegiac poet, athlete, geographer, astronomer, and music theorist.He was the first person to use the word 'geography' and invented the discipline of geography as we understand it. He invented a system of latitude and longitude.
9: Johannes Kepler:- He was born December 27, 1571 and died November 15, 1630. He was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, and key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution. He is best known for his eponymous laws of planetary motion, codified by later astronomers, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy. These works also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation.
10: Adolf Hitler:- He was born 20 April 1889 and died 30 April 1945. He was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, abbreviated NSDAP), commonly known as the Nazi Party. He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and served as head of state as Fuhrer und Reichskanzler from 1934 to 1945.
11: Archimedes of Syracuse:- He was born c. 287 BC and died c. 212 BC. He was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer. Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity. Among his advances in physics are the foundations of hydrostatics, statics and an explanation of the principle of the lever. He is credited with designing innovative machines, including siege engines and the screw pump that bears his name. Modern experiments have tested claims that Archimedes designed machines capable of lifting attacking ships out of the water and setting ships on fire using an array of mirrors.
12: Albert Einstein:- He was born 14 March 1879 and died 18 April 1955. He was a German-born theoretical physicist who discovered the theory of general relativity, effecting a revolution in physics. For this achievement, Einstein is often regarded as the father of modern physics. He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics 'for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect'.
13: Antonio Anastasio Volta:- He was born 18 February 1745 and died 5 March 1827.He was an Italian physicist known especially for the invention of the battery in 1800 while in fact, the first chemical battery is invented by Iranians more than 2000 years ago and they were using it for electroplating. This was approved during the discovery of 'Baghdad Battery'.
14: Atal Bihari Vajpayee:- He was born 25 December 1924.He is an Indian statesman, who served as the tenth Prime Minister of India in 1996 and from 1998 to 2004. After a brief stint as Prime Minister in 1996, Vajpayee headed a coalition government from 19 March 1998 until 19 May 2004. He served as a Member of Parliament (MP) from Lucknow until 2009, and has since retired from active politics.
15: Robert Boyle FRS:- He was born 25 January 1627 and died 31 December 1691.He was a 17th century natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor, also noted for his writings in theology. He is best known for Boyle's law.Although his research clearly has its roots in the alchemical tradition, he is largely regarded today as the first modern chemist, and therefore one of the founders of modern chemistry. Among his works, The Sceptical Chymist is seen as a cornerstone book in the field of chemistry.
16: Dalai Lama:- He was born on 6 July 1935, to a farming family, in a small hamlet located in Taktser, Amdo, northeastern Tibet. At the age of two the child, who was named Lhamo Dhondup at that time was recognized as the reincarnation of the 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso. The Dalai Lamas are believed to be manifestations of Avalokiteshvara or Chenrezig, the Bodhisattva of Compassion and patron saint of Tibet. Bodhisattvas are enlightened beings who have postponed their own nirvana and chosen to take rebirth in order to serve humanity.
17: Joseph Priestley:- He was born 13 March 1733 and died 6 February 1804.He was an 18th-century English theologian, Dissenting clergyman, natural philosopher, educator, and political theorist who published over 150 works. He is usually credited with the discovery of oxygen, having isolated it in its gaseous state, although Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Antoine Lavoisier also have a claim to the discovery.
18: Barack Hussein Obama:- He was born August 4, 1961.He is the 44th and current President of the United States. He is the first African American to hold the office. Obama previously served as a United States Senator from Illinois, from January 2005 until he resigned after his election to the presidency in November 2008.
19: Eratosthenes:- He was born c. 276 BC and died c. 195 BC. He was a Greek mathematician, elegiac poet, athlete, geographer, astronomer, and music theorist.He was the first person to use the word 'geography' and invented the discipline of geography as we understand it. He invented a system of latitude and longitude.
20: Henry Cavendish FRS:- He was born 10 October 1731 and died 24 February 1810.He was a British scientist noted for his discovery of hydrogen or what he called 'inflammable air'. He described the density of inflammable air, which formed water on combustion, in a 1766 paper 'On Factitious Airs'. Antoine Lavoisier later reproduced Cavendish's experiment and gave the element its name. Cavendish is also known for the Cavendish experiment, his measurement of the Earth's density, and early research into electricity.
21: Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi:- She was born 19 November 1917 and died 31 October 1984.He was the third Prime Minister of the Republic of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in 1984, a total of fifteen years. India's only female prime minister to date, she is the world's longest serving female Prime Minister. She was also the only Indian Prime Minister to have declared an emergency in order to 'rule by decree' and the only Indian Prime Minister to have been imprisoned.
22: Jagadish Chandra Bose:-He was born 30 November 1858 and died 23 November 1937.He was an Bengali polymath: a physicist, biologist, botanist, archaeologist, as well as an early writer of science fiction. He pioneered the investigation of radio and microwave optics, made very significant contributions to plant science, and laid the foundations of experimental science in the Indian subcontinent. IEEE named him one of the fathers of radio science. He is also considered thefather of Bengali science fiction. He was the first person from the Indian subcontinent to receive a US patent, in 1904.
23: John Dalton FRS:- He was born 6 September 1766 and died 27 July 1844.He was an English chemist, meteorologist and physicist. He is best known for his pioneering work in the development of modern atomic theory, and his research into colour blindness (sometimes referred to as Daltonism, in his honour).
24: John Dalton FRS:- He was born 6 September 1766 and died 27 July 1844.He was an English chemist, meteorologist and physicist. He is best known for his pioneering work in the development of modern atomic theory, and his research into colour blindness (sometimes referred to as Daltonism, in his honour).
25: Christiaan Huygens:- He was born 14 April 1629 and died 8 July 1695.He was a prominent Dutch mathematician, astronomer, physicist, horologist, and writer of early science fiction. His work included early telescopic studies elucidating the nature of the rings of Saturn and the discovery of its moon Titan, the invention of the pendulum clock and other investigations in timekeeping, and studies of both optics and the centrifugal force.
26: Blaise Pascal:- He was born June 19, 1623 and died August 19, 1662.He was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Catholic philosopher. He was a child prodigy who was educated by his father, a Tax Collector in Rouen. Pascal's earliest work was in the natural and applied sciences where he made important contributions to the study of fluids, and clarified the concepts of pressure and vacuum by generalizing the work of Evangelista Torricelli. Pascal also wrote in defense of the scientific method.
27: Vinton Gray:- He was born June 23, 1943.He is an American computer scientist, who is recognized as one of 'the fathers of the Internet', sharing this title with American computer scientist Bob Kahn. His contributions have been acknowledged and lauded, repeatedly, with honorary degrees, and awards that include the National Medal of Technology, the Turing Award, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, and membership in the National Academy of Engineering.
28: Abraham Lincoln:-He was born February 12, 1809 and died April 15, 1865.He served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. He successfully led the country through its greatest internal crisis, the American Civil War,preserved the Union, and ended slavery. Reared in a poor family on the western frontier, he was mostly self-educated. He became a country lawyer, an Illinois state legislator, and a one-term member of the United States House of Representatives, but failed in two attempts at a seat in the United States Senate. He was an affectionate, though often absent, husband, and father of four children.
29: Michael Faraday:- He was born 22 September 1791 and died 25 August 1867.He was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of the time) who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
30: Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam:- He was born 15 October 1931 in Rameshwaram, Madras Presidency, Indian Empire, usually referred to as Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, was the 11th President of India, serving from 2002 to 2007. He was elected during the tenure of the National Democratic Alliance (India) coalition government, under Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee. During his term as President, he was popularly known as the People's President.
31: Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier:- He was born 26 August 1743 and died 8 May 1794. 'father of modern chemistry', was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry and biology. He stated the first version of the law of conservation of mass, recognized and named oxygen (1778) and hydrogen (1783), abolished the phlogiston theory, helped construct the metric system, wrote the first extensive list of elements, and helped to reform chemical nomenclature. He discovered that, although matter may change its form or shape, its mass always remains the same.
32: Srinivasa Aiyangar Ramanujam:- He was born 22 December 1887 and died 26 April 1920.He was an Indian mathematician and autodidact who, with almost no formal training in pure mathematics, made substantial contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory, infinite series and continued fractions. Ramanujan's talent was said by the prominent English mathematician G.H. Hardy to be in the same league as legendary mathematicians such as Euler, Gauss, Newton and Archimedes.
33: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi:-He was born 2 October 1869 and died 30 January 1948.He was the pre-eminent political and ideological leader of India during the Indian independence movement. He pioneered satyagraha. This is defined as resistance to tyranny through mass civil disobedience, a philosophy firmly founded upon ahimsa, or total nonviolence. This concept helped India to gain independence, and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. Gandhi is often referred to as Mahatma Gandhi. In India he is also calledBapu. He is officially honoured in India as the Father of the Nation; his birthday, 2 October, is commemorated there as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday, and worldwide as the International Day of Non-Violence. Gandhi was assassinated on 30 January 1948 by Nathuram Godse, a Hindu Nationalist.
34: Rene Descartes:- He was born 31 March 1596 and died 11 February 1650.He was a natural philosopher, and writer who spent most of his adult life in the Dutch Republic. He has been dubbed the 'Father of Modern Philosophy', and much subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, which are studied closely to this day. In particular, his Meditations on First Philosophy continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments. Descartes's influence in mathematics is also apparent; the Cartesian coordinate system-allowing geometric shapes to be expressed in algebraic equations-was named after him. He is credited as the father of analytical geometry. Descartes was also one of the key figures in the Scientific Revolution.
35: George Washington:- He was born February 22, 1732 and died December 14, 1799.He was the dominant military and political leader of the new United States of America from 1775 to 1799. He led the American victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War as commander in chief of the Continental Army in 1775-1783, and he presided over the writing of the Constitution in 1787. As the unanimous choice to serve as the first President of the United States (1789-1797), he developed the forms and rituals of government that have been used ever since, such as using a cabinet system and delivering an inaugural address. As President he built a strong, well-financed national government that avoided war, suppressed rebellion and won acceptance among Americans of all types, and Washington is now known as the 'Father of his country'.
36: Kofi Atta Annan:- He was born 8 April 1938.He is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2006. Annan and the United Nations were the co-recipients of the 2001 Nobel Peace Prize for his founding the Global AIDS and Health Fund to support developing countries in their struggle to care for their people.
37: Edwin Powell Hubble:-He was born November 20, 1889 and died September 28,1953.He was an American astronomer who profoundly changed understanding of the universe by demonstrating the existence of galaxies other than our own, the Milky Way. He also Edwin Powell Hubble (November 20, 1889 - September 28,1953) was an American astronomer who profoundly changed understanding of the universe by demonstrating the existence of galaxies other than our own, the Milky Way. He also discovered that the degree of 'Doppler shift' observedin the light spectra from other galaxies increased in proportion to a particular galaxy's distance from Earth. This relationship became known as Hubble's law, and helped establish that the universe is expanding. Hubble has sometimes been incorrectly credited with discovering the Doppler shift in the spectra of galaxies, but this had already been observed earlier by Vesto Slipher, whose data Hubble used.
38: Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman:- He was born 7 November 1888 and died 21 November 1970.He was an Indian physicist whose work was influential in the growth of science in India. He was the recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1930 for the discovery that when light traverses a transparent material, some of the light that is deflected changes in wavelength. This phenomenon is now called Raman scattering and is the result of the Raman effect.
39: Pythagoras:- He was born c. 570 and died c. 495 BC.He was an Ionian Greek philosopher, mathematician, and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. Most of the information about Pythagoras was written down centuries after he lived, so that very little reliable information is known about him. He was born on the island of Samos, and may have travelled widely in his youth, visiting Egypt and other places seeking knowledge. He had a teacher named Themistoclea, who introduced him to the principles of ethics.Around 530 BC, he moved to Croton, a Greek colony in southern Italy, and there set up a religious sect. His followers pursued the religious rites and practices developed by Pythagoras, and studied his philosophical theories. The society took an active role in the politics of Croton, but this eventually led to their downfall. The Pythagorean meeting-places were burned, and Pythagoras was forced to flee the city. He is said to have ended his days in Metapontum.
40: Michael Joe Jackson:- He was born August 29, 1958 and died June 25, 2009.He was an American recording artist, dancer, singer-songwriter, musician and philanthropist. Referred to as the King of Pop, Jackson is recognized as the most successful entertainer of all time by Guinness World Records. His contribution to music, dance and fashion, along with a much-publicized personal life, made him a global figure in popular culture for over four decades. The eighth child of the Jackson family, he debuted on the professional music scene along with his brothers as a member of The Jackson 5 in the mid-1960s, and began his solo career in 1971.
41: Meghnad Saha:- He was born 6 October 1893 and died 16 February 1956.He was an Indian astrophysicist best known for his development of the Saha equation, used to describe chemical and physical conditions in stars.
42: Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac:- He was born 6 December 1778 and died 9 May 1850.He was a French chemist and physicist. He is known mostly for two laws related to gases, and for his work on alcohol-water mixtures, which led to the degrees Gay-Lussac used to measure alcoholic beverages in many countries.
43: Georges Cuvier:- He was born August 23, 1769 and died May 13, 1832, known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist and zoologist. Cuvier was a major figure in natural sciences research in the early 19th century, and was instrumental in establishing the fields of comparative anatomy and paleontology through his work in comparing living animals with fossils. He is well known for establishing extinction as a fact, being the most influential proponent of catastrophism in geology in the early 19th century, and opposing the evolutionary theories of Lamarck and Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. His most famous work is the Le Regne Animal (1817; English: The Animal Kingdom). In 1819, he was created a peer for the life in honor of his scientific contributions. Thereafter he was known as Baron Cuvier. He died in Paris of cholera.
44: Edward Anthony Jenner:- He was born 17 May 1749 and died 26 January 1823.He was an English scientist who studied his natural surroundings in Berkeley, Gloucestershire. Jenner is widely credited as the pioneer of smallpox vaccine, and is sometimes referred to as the 'Father of Immunology'; his works have been said to have 'saved more lives than the work of any other man'.
45: Sir Robert Alexander Watson-Watt:- He was born 13 April 1892 and died 5 December 1973.He is considered by many to be the 'inventor of radar'.Development of radar, initially nameless, was first started elsewhere but greatly expanded on 1 September 1936 when Watson-Watt became Superintendent of a new establishment under the British Air Ministry, Bawdsey Research Station located in Bawdsey Manor, near Felixstowe, Suffolk. Work there resulted in the design and installation of aircraft detection and tracking stations called Chain Home along the East and South coasts of England in time for the outbreak of WWII in 1939. This system provided the vital advance information that helped the Royal Air Force win the Battle of Britain.
46: Joseph Henry:-He was born 17 December 1797 and died 13 May 1878.He was an American scientist who served as the first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, as well as a founding member of the National Institute for the Promotion of Science, a precursor of the Smithsonian Institution. During his lifetime, he was highly regarded. While building electromagnets, Henry discovered the electromagnetic phenomenon of self-inductance. He also discovered mutual inductance independently of Michael Faraday, though Faraday was the first to publish his results. The SI unit of inductance, the henry, is named in his honor. Henry's work on the electromagnetic relay was the basis of the electrical telegraph, invented by Samuel Morse and Charles Wheatstone separately.
47: Carolus Linnaeus:- He was born 23 May 1707 and died 10 January 1778.He was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist who created the binomial nomenclature. In this system, every kind of animal and plant is given a name consisting of two Latin words, for its genus and species. This became used by biologists all over the world, and he is known as the 'father of modern taxonomy'. He was a good linguist, and famous in his time. He was made a noble by the Swedish king.
48: Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela:- He was born 18 July 1918, served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999, and was the first South African president to be elected in a fully representative democratic election. Before his presidency, Mandela was an anti-apartheid activist, and the leader of Umkhonto we Sizwe, the armed wing of the African National Congress (ANC). In 1962 he was arrested and convicted of sabotage and other charges, and sentenced to life in prison. Mandela served 27 years in prison, spending many of these years on Robben Island. Following his release from prison on 11 February 1990, Mandela led his party in the negotiations that led to multi-racial democracy in 1994. As president from 1994 to 1999, he frequently gave priority to reconciliation.
49: Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier:- He was born 26 August 1743 and died 8 May 1794.The 'father of modern chemistry', was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry and biology. He stated the first version of the law of conservation of mass, recognized and named oxygen (1778) and hydrogen (1783), abolished the phlogiston theory, helped construct the metric system, wrote the first extensive list of elements, and helped to reform chemical nomenclature. He discovered that, although matter may change its form or shape, its mass always remains the same.
50: Manmohan Singh:- He was born 26 September 1932.He is the 13th and current Prime Minister of India. He is the only Prime Minister since Jawaharlal Nehru to return to power after completing a full five-year term. He is the first Sikh to hold the office. Singh is also the 7th Prime Minister belonging to the Indian National Congress party.